By P. Hamlar. Thomas Cooley Law School.
Such behavior is defined at the conceptual level only purchase levitra extra dosage 60 mg amex, through formalisms and notations suitable to identify the scope of the services buy levitra extra dosage 60 mg with amex. Copying or distributing in print or electronic forms without written permission of Idea Group Inc. A HISA full-compliant middleware, called DHE has been developed within RICHE and EDITH EU projects. HL7 is one of the most active ANSI-accredited Standards Developing Organizations operating in the HC. Specifically, to create flexible, cost effective approaches, standards, guidelines, methodologies, and related services for interoperability between healthcare informa- tion systems. There are different versions of HL7 messaging standard with most recent the version 2. The HL7 version 3 uses an object-oriented development methodology and a Reference Information Model (RIM) to create mes- sages that are to be exchanged among the subsystems of a health institution. In HL7 version 3, the major change from previous versions is the adoption of the RIM. The presence or absence of a data element value is defined in the Hierar- chical Message Description (HMD) associated with a trigger event. Copying or distributing in print or electronic forms without written permission of Idea Group Inc. Apart of the RIM specification, another foundation component of version 3 is the vocabulary. Especially for HL7 version 3, attention has been paid to XML and Web Services and relative work is currently being done (e. It started as the GEHR EU project in 1992, and as mentioned in the “Origins” section of openEHR Web site (“The Interface between the GEHR“, 2004), had actually influenced the CEN TC- 251 work on Electronic Health Record (EHR) (the first CEN pre-standard for EHR, ENV 12265). Later at 1999, after a number of EU and Australian projects, openEHR was formed as an open source foundation (actually an online community) whose aim is to promote and facilitate progress towards electronic healthcare records of high quality. Although openEHR concerns the EHR, its constraint-based domain models approach, establishes the separation of knowledge and information levels in information systems as author indicates (Beale, 2002, p. In order to define valid information structures at the knowledge level model, the concept of Archetypes is used. Archetypes enable users in a domain to formally express their concepts, enable information systems to guide and validate user input, guarantee interoperability at the knowledge level, and provide a well- defined basis for efficient querying of complex data. Dedicated OMG Task Forces are working on standardizing domain facilities in industries such as HC. The OMG Healthcare Domain Task Force has defined standard interface requirements between HC-related services and functions. These middleware specifications include: • The Person Identification Service (PIDS) specification defines the interfaces that organize person ID management functionality to meet HC needs. The specification is designed to support assignment of IDs within a particular domain and correlation of IDs among multiple domains, searching and matching of people independent of matching algorithms, and federation of PIDS services. It can be used to implement a common interface to any of the major medical coding schemes and achieve unambiguous concept representation in a distributed HC environment. Copying or distributing in print or electronic forms without written permission of Idea Group Inc. It provides a variety of assessment mechanisms, so that complex clinical information can be efficiently searched and retrieved. It establishes a common way for an application to request and receive an authorization decision. OpenEMed is a set of open-source components based on the aforementioned OMG specifications, HL7 and other data standards. The OpenEMed components are written in Java and target interoperable service functionality that reduces the time it takes to build HC related systems. It includes sample implementations of the PIDS, COAS, RAD, and the Terminology Query Service and requires CORBA infrastructure to run. OpenEMed also provides tools for assisting the healthcare application development, such as libraries providing persistence to a number of different databases, general GUI tools for managing XML driven interfaces, tools for handling SSL, and so on. The increased use of computer-based systems in medicine acknowledged the need for a standardized method to transfer images and the associated medical data among systems from different vendors. The goals of DICOM standard are the creation of an open environment among vendors, the interchange of medical images and related data, and the facilitation of interoperability among systems. In order to facilitate interoperability of medical-imaging equipment, DICOM specifies a set of network communication protocols, the syntax and semantics of commands and associated information which can be exchanged, a set of media storage services, a file format to facilitate access to the images and related information stored on media and information, that must be supplied with an implementation for which conformance to the standard is affirmed. In the following paragraphs we will discuss both client/server and distributed architectures. We will also make a short reference to the most common ways of realizing distributed architecture: CORBA, DCOM, and XML Web Services. Copying or distributing in print or electronic forms without written permission of Idea Group Inc. The basic concept behind distributed applications is that at least part of the function- ality runs remotely, as process in another computer. The client-side application commu- nicates with the remote components, sending instructions or retrieving information. Distributed architecture has some important advantages over the client/server architec- ture with more important the issue of scalability: new computers can be added providing additional computing power and stability because one computer can fail without derailing the entire application.
When aspiration is to be followed by corticosteroid injection levitra extra dosage 60 mg without a prescription, maintaining a sterile field with sterile implements minimizes the risk of infection discount levitra extra dosage 40 mg on line. Clean the area with povidone–iodine, dry and wipe over the aspiration site with alco- hol. Anesthetize the area with lidocaine using a 25-gauge needle, taking care not to inject into the joint space. Alternatively, spray the area with ethyl chloride (“freeze spray”) just prior to needle aspiration. If corticosteroid is to be injected, remove the aspirating syringe from the needle, which is still in the joint space. It is helpful to ensure that the syringe can easily be removed 13 from the needle before step 6. Attach the syringe containing corticosteroid, pull back on the plunger to ensure you are not in a vein, and inject contents. Remove the needle, and apply pres- sure to the area (leakage of subcutaneous steroids can lead to localized atrophy of the skin. Generally, the equivalent of 40 mg of methylprednisolone is injected into large joints such as the knee and 20 mg into medium-size joints such as the ankle or wrist. Warn the patient that a postinjection “flare” characterized by pain several hours after the injection can be treated with ice and NSAIDs. A quick bedside test for viscosity is to allow a drop of fluid to fall from the tip of the needle. Normal synovial fluid is highly viscous and forms a several- inch long string; decreased viscosity is seen in infection. A mucin clot test (normally forms in < 1 min; a delayed result suggests inflammation) was once a standard test for RA, but is not now routinely performed. Joint fluid is usually sent for: • Cell count and differential (purple or green top tube) • Microscopic crystal exam using polarized light microscopy (purple or green top tube); normally no debris, crystals, or bacteria are seen; urate crystals are present with gout; calcium pyrophosphate in pseudo-gout. Wait until the patient has a relaxed quadriceps muscle because its contraction plants the patella against the femur, making aspiration painful. Insert the needle posterior to the medial portion of the patella into the patellar-femoral groove. The easiest site for aspiration is between the navicular bone and radius on the dorsal wrist. Locate the distal radius between the tendons of the extensor pollicis longus and the extensor carpi radialis longus to the second finger. Make a mark lateral and anterior to the medial malleolus and me- dial and posterior to the tibialis anterior tendon. The subtalar ankle joint does not communicate with the ankle joint and is difficult to aspirate even by an expert. Be aware that “ankle pain” may originate in the subtalar joint rather than in the ankle (Fig. Synovial Fluid Interpretation Normal synovial fluid values and values in disease states are found in Table 13–2. Postinjection flare of joint pain and swelling can occur after steroid injection and persist for up to 24 h. This complication is felt to be a crystal-induced synovitis due to the crystalline suspension used in long-acting steroids. BONE MARROW ASPIRATION AND BIOPSY Indications • Evaluation of unexplained anemia, thrombocytopenia, leukopenia • Evaluation of unexplained leukocytosis, thrombocytosis, search for malignancy pri- mary to the marrow (leukemia, myeloma) or metastatic to the marrow (small-cell lung cancer, breast cancer) T A B L E 1 3 – 2 S y n o v i a l F l u i d A n a l y s i s a n d C a t e g o r i e s f o r D i f f e r e n t i a l D i a g n o s i s * P a r a m e t e r N o r m a l N o n i n f l a m m a t o r y I n f l a m m a t o r y S e p t i c H e m o r r h a g i c V i s c o s i t y H i g h H i g h D e c r e a s e d D e c r e a s e d V a r i a b l e C l a r i t y T r a n s p a r e n t T r a n s p a r e n t T r a n s l u c e n t - o p a q u e O p a q u e C l o u d y C o l o r C l e a r Y e l l o w Y e l l o w t o o p a l e s c e n t Y e l l o w t o g r e e n P i n k t o r e d W B C ( p e r µ L ) < 2 0 0 < 3 0 0 0 3 0 0 0 – 5 0, 0 0 0 > 5 0, 0 0 0 † U s u a l l y < 2 0 0 0 P o l y m o r p h o n u c l e a r < 2 5 % < 2 5 % 5 0 % o r m o r e 7 5 % o r m o r e 3 0 % l e u k o c y t e s ( % ) C u l t u r e N e g a t i v e N e g a t i v e N e g a t i v e U s u a l l y p o s i t i v e N e g a t i v e G l u c o s e ( m g / d L ) A p p r o x. A technician from the hematology lab or BMT facility is necessary to ensure delivery and processing of specimens. Explain the procedure to the patient and/or the legally responsible surrogate in detail, and obtain informed consent. Usually local anesthesia is all that is required; however, in extremely anxious patients, premedication with an anxiolytic or sedative such as diazepam (Valium) or midazolam (Versed) or an analgesic is reasonable. Bone marrow can be obtained from numerous sites, the most common being the sternum, the anterior iliac crest, and the posterior iliac crest. The posterior iliac crest is the safest and usually the site of choice and is described here. Position the patient on either the ab- domen or on the side opposite the side from which the biopsy specimen is to be taken. Identify the posterior iliac crest by palpation and mark the desired biopsy site with in- delible ink. Use sterile gloves and follow strict aseptic technique for the remainder of the procedure. Prep the biopsy site with sterile povidone–iodine solution and allow the skin to dry. With a 26-gauge needle, administer 1% lidocaine solution intradermally to raise a skin wheal. Then, with the 22-gauge needle, infiltrate the subcutaneous and deeper tissues with lidocaine until the periosteum is reached. At this point, advance the needle just through the periosteum and infiltrate lidocaine subperiosteally. Infiltrate an area ap- proximately 2 cm in diameter, using repeated periosteal punctures. Insert the bone marrow biopsy needle through the skin incision and then advance with a rotating motion and gentle pressure until the periosteum is reached. Once it is firmly seated on the periosteum, advance the needle through the outer table of bone into the marrow cavity with the same rotating motion and gentle pressure. Generally, a slight change in the resistance to needle advancement signals entry into the marrow cavity. Remove the stylet from the biopsy needle and attach a 10-mL syringe to the hub of the biopsy needle.
The ethnic origin Oculo-digito-esophago-duodenal syndrome results of individuals affected by ODED is varied and is not spe- in a variety of different physical and mental signs and cific to any one country or group 40mg levitra extra dosage sale. Signs and symptoms Individuals who are affected by physical hand purchase levitra extra dosage 40 mg fast delivery, head, The signs and symptoms of oculo-digito-esophago- or foot anomalies (with no other physical or mental duodenal syndrome vary from individual to individual. Between 45% and 85% of individuals affected by ODED have developmental delays and/or Resources mental retardation. Other features can include an extra BOOKS eyelid fold (palpebral fissures), ear abnormalities/hearing Children with Hand Differences: A Guide for Families. Area loss, kidney abnormalities, backbone abnormalities (ver- Child Amputee Center Publications. Center for Limb tebral anomalies), an opening between the esophagus and Differences in Grand Rapids, MI, phone: 616-454-4988. Diagnosis ORGANIZATIONS Diagnosis of oculo-digito-esophago-duodenal syn- Cherub Association of Families & Friends of Limb Disorder drome is usually made following a physical exam by a Children. Ultrasound results indica- WEBSITES tive of ODED include a “double bubble” sign suggesting OMIM—Online Mendelian Inheritance of Man. Jacob, MS abnormalities cause the severe oligohydramnios, result- ing in the fetus developing oligohydramnios sequence. Okihiro syndrome see Duane retraction This is because if there is a problem with the fetal renal syndrome system, there is the possibility that not enough amniotic fluid is being produced. Renal system abnormalities that have been associated with the development of oligohy- Olfactogenitalis of DeMorsier see Kallmann dramnios sequence include, the absence of both kidneys syndrome (renal agenesis), bilateral cystic kidneys, absence of one kidney with the other kidney being cystic, and obstruc- tions that blocks the urine from exiting the renal system. In a fetus affected with oligohydramnios sequence, sometimes the renal system abnormality is the only abnormality the fetus has. However, approximately 54% IOligohydramnios sequence of fetuses with oligohydramnios sequence due to a renal Definition system abnormality will have other birth defects or dif- ferences with their growth and development. Sometimes Oligohydramnios sequence occurs as a result of hav- the presence of other abnormalities indicates that the ing very little or no fluid (called amniotic fluid) sur- fetus may be affected with a syndrome or condition in rounding a developing fetus during a pregnancy. Renal “Oligohydramnios” means that there is less amniotic system abnormalities in a fetus can also be associated fluid present around the fetus than normal. A “sequence” with certain maternal illnesses, such as insulin dependant is a chain of events that occurs as a result of a single diabetes mellitus, or the use of certain medications dur- abnormality or problem. Potter first described the physical fea- when the fetal renal system appears normal. Because of his ation, often the oligohydramnios occurs as the result of description, oligohydramnios sequence has also been chronic leakage of amniotic fluid. In chronic leakage of amniotic fluid, the fetus still produces enough amniotic fluid, however, During a pregnancy, the amount of amniotic fluid there is an opening in the membrane surrounding the typically increases through the seventh month and then fetus, causing the amniotic fluid to leak out from the slightly decreases during the eighth and ninth months. At approximately 16 weeks, the fetal kidneys begin to function, producing the Genetic profile majority of the amniotic fluid from that point until the The chance for oligohydramnios sequence to occur end of the pregnancy. There have been many fetuses affected with Oligohydramnios typically is diagnosed during the oligohydramnios sequence where the underlying cause of second and/or third trimester of a pregnancy. When the the severe oligohydramnios has been a genetic abnormal- oligohydramnios is severe enough and is present for an ity. However, not all causes of severe oligohydramnios extended period of time, oligohydramnios sequence that result in the development of oligohydramnios tends to develop. Severe oligohydramnios that have caused oligohydramnios developing during a can develop when there are abnormalities with the fetal pregnancy include a single gene change, a missing gene, renal system or when there is a constant leakage of amni- or a chromosome anomaly. GALE ENCYCLOPEDIA OF GENETIC DISORDERS 827 oligohydramnios that could cause the development of KEY TERMS oligohydramnios sequence. Many of the genetic conditions that can cause oligo- Anomaly—Different from the normal or expected. An autosomal recessive condition is Bilateral—Relating to or affecting both sides of the caused by a difference in a gene. Carriers of a condition typi- Renal system—The organs involved with the pro- cally do not exhibit any symptoms of that condition. There are several auto- somal recessive conditions that can cause fetal renal Teratogen—Any drug, chemical, maternal disease, abnormalities potentially resulting in the fetus to develop or exposure that can cause physical or functional oligohydramnios sequence. Oligohydramnios sequence has also been seen in Unilateral—Refers to one side of the body or only some fetuses with an autosomal dominant conditions. This non-working gene can either be inherited from a Although some fetuses with oligohydramnios parent or occur for the first time at conception. There are sequence have been found to have a chromosome anom- many autosomal dominant conditions where affected aly, the likelihood that a chromosome anomaly is the family members have different features and severity of underlying cause of the renal system anomaly or other the same condition. If a fetus is felt to have had oligohy- problem resulting in the severe oligohydramnios is low. If the condition was inher- mosome, an extra piece of a chromosome, or a rearrange- ited from a parent, that parent would have a 50% chance ment of the chromosomal material. Both spo- has a condition or syndrome that is known to occur spo- radic and inherited chromosome anomalies have been radically. Sporadic conditions are conditions that tend to seen in fetuses with oligohydramnios sequence. The occur once in a family and the pattern of inheritance is chance for a chromosome anomaly to occur again in a unknown. Since there are some families where a sporadic family is dependent on the specific chromosome anom- condition has occurred more than one time, a recurrence aly. Sometimes examinations of family members of an If the chromosome anomaly (typically a rearrangement affected pregnancy can help determine the exact diagno- of chromosomal material) was inherited from a parent, sis and pattern of inheritance. It is estimated that approx- the recurrence risk would be based on the specific chro- imately 9% of first-degree relatives (parent, brother, or mosome arrangement involved. However, even if a chro- sister) of a fetus who developed oligohydramnios mosome anomaly were to recur in a future pregnancy, it sequence as a result of a renal abnormality, will also have does not necessarily mean that the fetus would develop renal abnormalities that do not cause any problems or 828 GALE ENCYCLOPEDIA OF GENETIC DISORDERS symptoms. It is important to remember that if a preg- nancy inherits a condition that is associated with oligo- hydramnios sequence, it does not necessarily mean that the pregnancy will develop oligohydramnios sequence.
Researchers have also concluded that the dis- Demographics orders formerly known as Goodman syndrome (ACPS Carpenter syndrome and the other ACPS disorders IV) and Summitt syndrome are variants (slightly differ- have an occurrence of approximately one in every one ent forms) of Carpenter syndrome generic 40 mg levitra extra dosage free shipping. It is rare because both parents must All forms of ACPS are characterized by premature carry the gene mutation in order for their child to have closing of the cranial sutures and malformations of the the disease buy cheap levitra extra dosage 60 mg online. Individuals diagnosed with Carpenter observed in cases where the parents are related by blood, syndrome have short and broad heads (brachycephaly), though in most cases parents are not related. Parents with the tops of which appear abnormally cone-shaped (acro- one child affected by Carpenter syndrome have a 25% cephaly). Webbing or fusion of the fingers or toes (syn- likelihood that their next child will also be affected with dactyly) and/or the presence extra fingers or toes the disorder. Signs and symptoms The human skull consists of several bony plates separated by a narrow fibrous joint that contains stem Individuals diagnosed with Carpenter syndrome cells. The two main examples are sagittal and bicoro- to back across the top of the head; the two coronal nal craniosynostosis. Sagittal craniosynostosis is charac- sutures, which run across the skull parallel to and just terized by a long and narrow skull (scaphocephaly). This above the hairline; the metopic, which runs from front to is measured as an increase in the A-P, or anterior-to-pos- back in front of the sagittal suture; and the two lamboid terior, diameter, which indicates that looking down on the sutures, which run side to side across the back of the top of the skull, the diameter of the head is greater than head. The premature closing of one or more of these cra- normal in the front-to-back orientation. Individuals nial sutures leads to skull deformations, a condition affected with sagittal craniosynostosis also have narrow called craniosynostosis. There are seven types of cran- but prominent foreheads and a larger than normal back of iosynostosis depending on which cranial suture or the head. The so-called soft-spot found just beyond the sutures are affected: sagittal, bicoronal (both coronal hairline in a normal baby is very small or absent in a baby sutures), unicoronal (one coronal suture), coronal and affected with sagittal craniosynostosis. Individuals bicoronal craniosynostosis, is characterized by a wide GALE ENCYCLOPEDIA OF GENETIC DISORDERS 205 A further complication of bicoronal craniosynosto- KEY TERMS sis is water on the brain (hydrocephalus), which increases pressure on the brain. Most individuals Acrocephalopolysyndactyly syndromes—A col- affected with this condition also have an abnormally high lection of genetic disorders characterized by cone- and arched palate that can cause dental problems and shaped abnormality of the skull and partial fusing protrusion, the thrusting forward of the lower jaw. Coronal and sagittal craniosynostosis are characterized by a cone-shaped head (acrocephaly). Individuals with Carpenter syndrome often have Cranial suture—Any one of the seven fibrous webbed fingers or toes (cutaneous syndactyly) or partial joints between the bones of the skull. These indi- Craniosynostosis—Premature, delayed, or other- viduals also tend to have unusually short fingers (bracy- wise abnormal closure of the sutures of the skull. Cutaneous syndactyly—Fusion of the soft tissue between fingers or toes resulting in a webbed Approximately one third of Carpenter syndrome appearance. These may include: narrowing of the artery that delivers blood from Gene—A building block of inheritance, which the heart to the lungs (pulmonary stenosis); blue baby contains the instructions for the production of a syndrome, due to various defects in the structure of the particular protein, and is made up of a molecular heart or its major blood vessels; transposition of the sequence found on a section of DNA. Each gene is major blood vessels, meaning that the aorta and pul- found on a precise location on a chromosome. In some persons diagnosed with Carpenter syn- Scaphocephaly—An abnormally long and narrow drome, additional physical problems are present. Individuals are often short or overweight, with males Syndactyly—Webbing or fusion between the fin- having a disorder in which the testicles fail to descend gers or toes. Another problem is caused by parts of the large intestine coming through an abnormal opening near the navel (umbilical hernia). This is measured as a decrease in the A-P diameter, which indicates that look- ing down on the top of the skull, the diameter of the head Diagnosis is less than normal in the front-to-back orientation. Individuals affected with this condition have poorly The diagnosis of Carpenter syndrome is made based formed eye sockets and foreheads. This causes a smaller on the presence of the bicoronal and sagittal skull mal- than normal sized eye socket that can cause eyesight formation, which produces a cone-shaped or short and complications. These complications include damage to broad skull, accompanied by partially fused or extra fin- the optic nerve, which can cause a loss of visual clarity; gers or toes (syndactly or polydactyly). Skull x rays bulging eyeballs resulting from the shallow orbits and/or a CT scan may also be used to diagnose the skull (exophthalmus), which usually damages the eye cornea; malformations correctly. Other genetic disorders are also widely spaced eyes; and a narrowing of the sinuses and characterized by the same types of skull deformities and tear ducts that can cause inflammation of the mucous some genetic tests are available for them. Thus, positive membranes that line the exposed portion of the eyeball results on these tests can rule out the possibility of (conjunctivitis). In the most severe cases of Carpenter to produce pictures of the fetus, is generally used to syndrome, it may be necessary to treat feeding and respi- examine the development of the skull in the second and ratory problems that are associated with the malformed third months of pregnancy, but the images are not, as of palate and sinuses. Obesity is associated with Carpenter 2000, always clear enough to properly diagnose the type syndrome and dietary management throughout the of skull deformity, if present. Extra fingers or toes (polydactyly) may often be surgically removed shortly Treatment and management after birth. Surgical procedures also exist to correct some of the Operations to correct the skull malformations asso- heart defects associated with Carpenter syndrome, as ciated with Carpenter syndrome should be performed well as the testicles disorder of affected males. This is because abnormal opening of the large intestine near the navel modifying the skull bones is much easier at that age and (umbilical hernia or omphalocele) can also be treated by new bone growth, as well as the required bone reshaping, surgery. Also, the facial features are still highly mental delays are available for affected patients. Follow-up support by pediatric, Prognosis psychological, neurological, surgical, and genetic spe- Carpenter syndrome is not usually fatal if immediate cialists may be necessary. In all but the most severe and inoperable vision problems that require consultation with an oph- cases of craniosynostosis, it is possible that the affected thalmologist, or doctor specialized in the treatment of individual may attain a greatly improved physical appear- such problems. Depending on damage to the nervous system, the necessary if the ears and the brain have been affected. If rapidity of treatment, and the potential brain damage the palate is severely malformed, dental consultation may from excess pressure on the brain caused by skull mal- GALE ENCYCLOPEDIA OF GENETIC DISORDERS 207 formation, certain affected individuals may display vary- possibly oats.
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