G. Dawson. University of Michigan-Flint.
Intranasal midazolam as a treatment of autonomic crises in patients with familial dysautonomia order malegra fxt 140mg overnight delivery. Shatzky S discount 140 mg malegra fxt otc, Moses S, Levy J, Pinsk V, Hershkovitz E, Herzog L, Shorer Z, Luder A, Parvari R. Congenital insensitivity to pain with anhidrosis (CIPA) in Israeli-Bedouins: genetic heterogeneity, novel mutations in the TRKANGF receptor gene, clinical ﬁndings and results of nerve conduction studies. Clinically deﬁnite multiple sclerosis Laboratory supported deﬁnite multiple sclerosis Clinically probable multiple sclerosis Laboratory supported probable multiple sclerosis Geisinger Health System, Danville, Pennsylvania, U. Psychological functioning in children and adoles- cents with Sturge–Weber syndrome. Central nervous system structure and function in Sturge–Weber syndrome: evidence of neurologic and radiologic progression. Michael Fitzpatrick, a full-time inner-city GP, argues from his day-to-day experience in the surgery that health propaganda is having a very unhealthy effect upon the nation. Patients are made unnecessarily anxious as a result of health scares which have greatly exaggerated the risks of everyday activities such as eating beef, sunbathing and having sex. Doctors no longer seem content with treating disease but are encouraged by the government to tell people how to live more and more aspects of their lives. Given the enormous improvement in life expectancy over the past century, even the most drastic changes in lifestyle are likely to have limited effect in further prolonging life. A life of abstinence and vigilance may reduce your risks of heart disease or cancer, but it is unlikely to delay your death for more than a few months. Recent NHS reforms in Britain are pushing doctors both to play a wider role in regulating the behaviour of their patients and to ration the allocation of resources to patient care. But people need less nannying when they are well and more health care when they are ill. Michael Fitzpatrick concludes that doctors should stop trying to make people virtuous. He argues that we need to establish a clear boundary between the worlds of medicine and politics, so that doctors can concentrate on treating the sick—and leave the well alone. Michael Fitzpatrick is a General Practitioner working in Hackney, London. CONTENTS Preface vii Glossary of acronyms xii 1 Introduction 1 2 Health scares and moral panics 13 3 The regulation of lifestyle 35 4 Screening 55 5 The politics of health promotion 72 6 The expansion of health 96 7 The personal is the medical 118 8 The crisis of modern medicine 130 9 Conclusion 155 Bibliography 174 Index 188 v PREFACE On a bitterly cold February day in the winter of 1987 I had to break into the house of an elderly couple who had succumbed to a combination of infection and hypothermia. While I waited for the ambulance I found, unopened on the doormat, a copy of the government’s ‘Don’t Die of Ignorance’ leaflet which had been distributed to twenty-three million households as part of the campaign to alert the nation to the danger of Aids. Around half of these households contained either an old couple or an old person living alone. What was striking about the ‘worried well’ was not only the intensity of their anxiety about a rare disease that they had little chance of contracting, but the effect of the Aids publicity in making them question the way they conducted their personal life. Whether or not they were at risk of HIV, the Aids campaign put people under real pressure to conform to official guidelines regarding their most intimate relationships. The more I examined the Aids campaign the less it seemed to be a rational response to a new disease, and the more it seemed to be about the promotion of a new code of sexual behaviour. Not only were fears being needlessly inflamed, but this was being done to establish new norms of acceptable and appropriate behaviour. It was also supplemented by a systematic government drive to change personal behaviour in areas such as smoking, alcohol, diet and exercise through the 1992 Health of the Nation initiative, and by the promotion of mass cancer screening programmes targeted at women (cervical smears and mammograms). To an unprecedented degree, health became politicised at a time when the world of politics was itself undergoing a dramatic transformation. The end of the Cold War marked an end to the polarisations between East and West, labour and capital, left and right, that had dominated society for 150 years. The unchallenged ascendancy of the market meant that the scope for politics was increasingly restricted. Collective solutions to social problems had been discredited and there was a general disillusionment with ‘grand narratives’. One indication of the resulting ideological and political flux was the fact that the remnants of the left broadly endorsed the Conservative government’s Aids campaign (some criticising it for not going far enough), while some right-wingers challenged its scaremongering character (though a few hardliners demanded a more traditional anti- gay, anti-sex line). As someone who had always identified with the political left, the ending of the old order in the late 1980s led to some contradictory and disconcerting developments. In response to a series of setbacks at home and abroad, the left lowered its horizons and became increasingly moderate and defensive. The weakness of the British left had always been its tendency to confuse state intervention for socialism. In the past, however, the state had intervened in industry and services; now (as it tried to retreat from some of its earlier commitments) it stepped up its interference in personal and family life. The left’s endorsement of the government’s Aids campaign, following earlier feminist approval of the mass removal of children from parents suspected of sexual abuse in Cleveland, signalled the radical movement’s abandonment of its traditional principles of liberty and opposition to state coercion. While most conservative commentators loyally defended government policy, only a small group of free-market radicals was prepared to advance a, rather limited, defence of individual freedom against the authoritarian dynamic revealed in the government’s health policies (see Chapter 5). Until the early 1990s, politics and medical practice were distinct and separate spheres. Some doctors were politically active, but they viii PREFACE conducted these activities in parties, campaigns and organisations independent of their clinical work. No doubt, their political outlook influenced their style of practice, but most patients would have scarcely been aware of where to place their doctor on the political spectrum. Systematic government interference in health care has since eroded the boundary between politics and medicine, substantially changing the content of medical practice and creating new divisions among doctors. Thus, for example, the split between fundholding and non-fundholding GPs in the early 1990s loosely reflected party-political allegiances as well as the divide between, on the one hand, suburban and rural practices, and on the other, those in inner cities. Despondent at the wider demise of the left, radical doctors turned towards their workplaces and played an influential role in implementing the agenda of health promotion and disease prevention, and in popularising this approach among younger practitioners.
The ﬁrst is advocating for over nineteen million Americans who live in their own communities and have some difficulty walking—the plurality of whom have ordinary chronic problems related to aging discount malegra fxt 140mg, like arthritis proven malegra fxt 140 mg, back pain, heart and lung disease, diabetes—and the millions who will share these difficulties in the future. Improving people’s ability to move freely and inde- pendently should enhance overall health and quality of life, not only for these individuals but also for society as a whole. The second goal is inform- ing policymakers about counterproductive health insurance and other public policies that are barriers to improving mobility. I primarily emphasize health-care delivery and payment policy, but the concept of “health” in- evitably extends broadly, reaching into homes, workplaces, communities, and the public spaces in which we all live. For individuals, restored independent mobility offers joy, empower- ment, and renewed hope. For society, “designing a ﬂexible world for the many,” accessible to all regardless of their mobility ability, will serve everybody well (Zola 1989, 422). But signiﬁcant personal, societal, health- system, and innumerable other hurdles impede the way. To examine these issues, I addressed three major questions in a project funded by the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation: How many adults living in communities have difficulty walking be- cause of chronic progressive diseases and disorders, and what are these health conditions? How do mobility difficulties affect people—their physical comfort, feelings about their lives, relationships with family and friends, and daily activities at home and in their communities? How do policies, especially for health-care delivery and payment, help and hinder people’s ability to maximize independent mobility, through enhancing the ability to walk pain-free and safely, modify- ing home and community environments, and providing assistive technologies? Mobility Limits / 3 These questions assume that getting out in the world is worth striving for, and that strategies exist to help us do so. Some approaches focus on individuals: reducing pain, obtaining assis- tive technologies, and redesigning daily activities. Making our public and private environ- ments and policies—homes, workplaces, educational settings, legal system, communal spaces, transportation networks, health-care providers, and re- imbursement policies—easier for and better suited to people with mobility difficulties will improve things for everybody. I concentrate here on certain people, deﬁned by the extent of mobility dif- ﬁculties, underlying physical cause, and age. First, mobility limitations cover a broad spectrum, ranging from persons who still walk independently but more slowly and less surely than before to those who require complete assis- tance with all mobility tasks, such as turning in bed. With the most severe limitations, people need extensive or round-the-clock personal assistance at home or live in nursing homes or institutional settings, raising many com- plex and important issues. Here, however, I focus on the vast majority of peo- ple at the less limited end of the spectrum: persons living in the community without intensive personal assistance at home. Although these people have less severe mobility limitations, their walking difficulties nonetheless affect their daily lives. They rarely identify with others who have mobility diffi- culties or use services targeting people with impaired mobility. Like the saleslady’s mother, they therefore risk feeling alone and unsure of what to do. Second, I consider persons with chronic progressive diseases or disor- ders, not people with congenital or acute, generally traumatic conditions, such as spinal cord injury. The experience of growing up with limited mo- bility or suddenly losing mobility differs from the slow, progressive march of increasing impairment. Persons with congenital conditions such as cerebral palsy, spina biﬁda, and muscular dystrophy often enter (along with their parents) a bewildering and specialized health and social service labyrinth; these service systems frequently fall apart as children become adults. Persons with spinal cord and serious injuries have obvious needs for assistive tech- nologies and various rehabilitative services. In contrast, the majority of people with progressive chronic conditions enter the general health-care system, typically through their primary care physicians. Because their limitations increase over time, often slowly, the decision on when to intervene (e. Despite some commonali- ties, children and adults with mobility difficulties prompt different per- sonal and societal responses. Special issues relating to very old people, es- pecially those with multiple physical and cognitive debilities, fall outside my scope. Many extremely frail persons live in nursing homes or other in- stitutions, raising complex concerns not considered here. This project used two sources of information: interviews with 119 people, including 56 persons with mobility difficulties and some family members, as well as physicians, physical and occupational therapists, medical directors of health insurance plans, disability rights advocates, and various others; and federal surveys of people living in communities throughout the United States in 1994 and 1995. I tape-recorded all interviews, and this book quotes people’s own words (Appendix 1 brieﬂy describes frequently quoted inter- viewees). Although I cite published autobiographical and scholarly works about mobility limitations and disability more generally, I rely primarily on the interviewees’ observations. Appendix 2 lists various sources of informa- tion that might assist people with mobility difficulties. Whereas these mobility problems increase with age, from 30 to 40 percent of people say their difficulties began when they were younger than ﬁfty years old; they had long lives ahead. The number of people with mobility difficul- ties will grow in coming decades as the population ages. Thus, walking prob- lems are a major national, social, and public-health concern. Perhaps “crippled,” “lame,” or “gimp” would upset us (unless we use them our- selves), but what about “handicapped,” “disabled,” “impaired,” or “physi- cally challenged”? With the exception of phrases “conﬁned to a wheelchair” or “wheelchair-bound”—too laden with imagery of being lashed into place for today’s woman to bear—I don’t much care. I generally agree with the perspective of the novelist Nancy Mobility Limits / 5 Mairs, who uses a power wheelchair because of MS. Mairs does not argue linguistic ﬁne points, refusing “to pretend that the only differences be- tween you and me are the various ordinary ones that distinguish any one person from another. She prefers “cripple,” seeing it as “a clean word, straightforward and precise” (118). But that does not mean Mairs views herself as immobile—the very trait prompting oth- ers to call her disabled.
The fat pad in front of the ligament has to be removed to visualize the ligament generic malegra fxt 140mg line, and the ligament must be probed to assess its status order 140 mg malegra fxt free shipping. The diagnostic examination of the knee must be complete to detect any meniscal injuries. In the chronic ACL-deﬁcient knee, the incidence of meniscal tears may be as high as 75%. The residual ligament is probed with a hook, and it can be appreciated that it is not attached to the femoral condyle. The deﬁnition of a partial tear is a history of injury to the anterior cruciate ligament, a positive Lachman test with a ﬁrm end point, a negative pivot-shift test, KT-1000 side-to-side difference of <5mm, and arthroscopic evidence of injury to the anterior cruciate ligament. Reports suggest that both conservative and operative treatment offer good results. Noyes and his colleagues had a 50% incidence of instability in high-demand sports participation athletes who had an anterior cruciate ligament tear of more than 50%. This suggests that patients in high-demand sports require reconstruction. Freunsgaard and Johnannsen had good results with con- servative treatment in patients who avoided high-demand athletics, and Buckley and colleagues reported that the degree of anterior cruciate tear did not correlate with outcome. Only half of their patients were able to resume their previous level of sports activity. Physical Examination Lachman Test The Lachman test is positive, but there is a ﬁrm end point (See Fig. This anterior excursion is greater than the opposite side, but less than 5mm of the side-to-side difference measured on the KT-1000 arthrometer. Pivot-Shift Test The pivot-shift test must be negative or only a slight glide to produce a diagnosis of a partial tear (See Fig. If the test is positive, the knee is clinically unstable and should be regarded as anterior cruciate deﬁ- 26 Physical Examination 27 cient. The KT-1000 Arthrometer The KT-1000 arthrometer will normally show a side-to-side difference of less than 5mm (Fig. The slope of the curves that are pulled with the KT-2000 demonstrate the difference. Force of 15, 20, and 30 pounds is applied to the vertical axis of the knee; the horizontal axis shows millimeters of displacement. The middle curve shows that there is initially more displacement, but then a ﬁrm restraint to anterior translation. The third curve on the right is the anterior cruciate deﬁcient knee with complete rupture. Partial Tears of the ACL Magnetic Resonance Imaging It is difﬁcult to estimate the degree of ACL injury with the MRI, as the laxity of the ligament cannot be accurately assessed. Therefore, it is not a useful tool for diagnosing partial tears of the anterior cruciate liga- ment. Arthroscopic Assessment Arthroscopic assessment of the anterior cruciate ligament tear is difﬁ- cult for two reasons. First, it is hard to see the ligament without remov- ing the synovium and fat pad. Second, it is only an estimate of the degree of tearing of the ligament. A hook probe must be used to examine the ligament proximally to see where the ligament is attached—to the side wall, the roof, or the posterior cruciate ligament. The best position is the side wall at the normal site of the anterior cruciate ligament. The most common situation is to see the ligament attached to the posterior cruciate ligament. This may give a 1+ Lachman test and a negative pivot-shift test, but would not stand up to vigorous pivoting activities. This amount of ligament laxity should allow a return to sports without a reconstruction. Treatment Options Partial Tears The treatment options for a patient with partial ACL tear are to give up or modify his or her sports activities. Partial Tears of the ACL sports activities and avoid pivotal sports will do well with a partial ante- rior cruciate ligament injury. This is the only parameter that the indi- vidual has control over, and that point should be emphasized when counseling athletes. Brace and Arthroscopy The use of a brace combined with modiﬁcation of activity can be suc- cessful. The best long-term outcome for the young patient is to have a meniscal repair. The results of a meniscal repair are much better when the knee has been reconstructed and is stable. ACL Reconstruction If there is a positive pivot-shift test or a small bundle attached to the femur, and the athlete wants to be active in pivoting sports, anterior cru- ciate ligament reconstruction should be considered. Indications for ACL Reconstruction The patient who is a candidate for reconstruction of the ACL is the com- petitive, pivoting athlete who is involved in sports such as soccer, rugby, and basketball. In addition, the patient should have clinical symptoms of instability, with a history of giving way, a positive Lachman, and pivot- shift test with more than 5mm side-to-side difference on the KT-1000 arthrometer.
Across the Atlantic After observing cases of cowpox and smallpox for a Ocean order 140mg malegra fxt with visa, Thomas Jefferson received the vaccine from Jenner quarter century 140 mg malegra fxt free shipping, Jenner took a step that could have branded and proceeded to vaccinate his family and neighbors at him a criminal as easily as a hero. However, in his native England, Jenner’s medical removed the fluid from a cowpox lesion from dairymaid Sarah colleagues refused to allow him entry into the College of WORLD OF MICROBIOLOGY AND IMMUNOLOGY KREBS CYCLE 331 Lancefield, Rebecca Craighill Lancefield, Rebecca Craighill In 1947, while at Yale, Lederberg received an offer from resistant to both. He also found that he could the University of Wisconsin to become an assistant professor manipulate a virus’s virulence. Although only two years away from receiving his Working with graduate student Norton Zinder, M. He worked transfer only of hereditary fragments of information between at the University of Wisconsin for a decade after abandoning cells as opposed to complete chromosomal replication (conju- his medical training, although he noted his later honorary gation). At the time, the practical aspect of promising young intellects in the burgeoning field of genetics. The Nobel Prize By perfecting a method to isolate mutant bacteria species Committee, however recognized the significance of his contri- using ultraviolet light, Lederberg was able to prove the long- butions to genetics and, in 1958, awarded him the Nobel Prize held theory that genetic occurred spontaneously. He in physiology or medicine for the bacterial and viral research found he could mate two strains of bacteria, one resistant to that provided a new line of investigations of viral diseases and and the other to streptomycin, and produce bacteria cancer. WORLD OF MICROBIOLOGY AND IMMUNOLOGY 347 Lister, Joseph Lister, Joseph Loeffler, Friedrich August Johannes See also See also See also viruses smallpox John F. See also was possible to develop a test for antibodies that had devel- which has proved controversial among most AIDS oped against it—the HIV test. Montagnier and his group also researchers, is the subject of ongoing research. He has described himself as an called HIV–2 was discovered by Montagnier and colleagues aggressive researcher who spends much time in either the lab- in April 1986. Montagnier enjoys A controversy developed over the patent on the HIV test swimming and classical music, and loves to play the piano, in the mid–1980s. Institute in Bethesda, Maryland, announced his own discovery of the HIV virus in April 1984 and received the patent on the AIDS, recent advances in research and treatment; test. The Institut Pasteur claimed the patent (and the profits) Immunodeficiency diseases; Viruses and responses to viral based on Montagnier’s earlier discovery of HIV. Despite the infection controversy, Montagnier continued research and attended numerous scientific meetings with Gallo to share information. Intense mediation efforts by (the scientist who developed the first polio vaccine) led to an international agree- ment signed by the scientists and their respective countries in 1987. Montagnier and Gallo agreed to be recognized as co- discoverers of the virus, and the two governments agreed that Lady Mary Wortley Montague contributed to microbiology and the profits of the HIV test be shared most going to a founda- by virtue of her powers of observation and her tion for AIDS research). As the wife of the British The scientific dispute continued to resurface, however. Ambassador Extraordinary to the Turkish court, Montague and Most HIV viruses from different patients differ by six to her family lived in Istanbul. While there she observed and was twenty percent because of the remarkable ability of the virus convinced of the protective power of inoculation against the to mutate. She wrote to friends in England describing different from Montagnier’s, leading to the suspicion that both inoculation and later, upon their return to England, she worked viruses were from the same source. The laboratories had to popularize the practice of inoculation in that country. Charges of scientific misconduct on Gallo’s part led brush with the disease in 1715, which left her with a scarred to an investigation by the National Institutes of Health in face and lacking eyebrows, and also from the death of her 1991, which initially cleared Gallo. While posted in Istanbul, she was was reviewed by the newly created Office of Research introduced to the practice of inoculation. The ORI report, issued in March of 1993, confirmed a smallpox scab on the surface of the skin was rubbed into an that Gallo had in fact “discovered” the virus sent to him by open cut of another person. Whether Gallo had been aware of this fact in develop a mild case of smallpox but would never be ravaged by 1983 could not be established, but it was found that he had the full severity of the disease caused by more virulent strains been guilty of misrepresentations in reporting his research and of the smallpox virus. Lady Montague was so enthused by the that his supervision of his research lab had been desultory. The protection offered against smallpox that she insisted on having Institut Pasteur immediately revived its claim to the exclusive her children inoculated. In 1718, her three-year-old son was right to the patent on the HIV test. In 1721, having returned to England, she insisted sion by the ORI, however, and took his case before an appeals that her English doctor inoculate her five-year-old daughter. The Upon her return to England following the expiration of board in December of 1993 cleared Gallo of all charges, and her husband’s posting, Montague used her standing in the high the ORI subsequently withdrew their charges for lack of proof. Her passion convinced a number of English physicians ations aside, in May of 2002, the two scientists announced a and even the reigning Queen, who decreed that the royal chil- partnership in the effort to speed the development of a vaccine dren and future heirs to the crown would be inoculated against against AIDS. In a short time, it became fashionable to be one of Human Virology, while Montagnier pursues concurrent those who had received an inoculation, partly perhaps because research as head of the World Foundation for AIDS Research it was a benefit available only to the wealthy. Montagnier’s continuing work includes investigation of Smallpox outbreaks of the eighteenth century in the envelope proteins of the virus that link it to the T-cell. The is also extensively involved in research of possible drugs to death rate among those who had been inoculated against combat AIDS. In 1990, Montagnier hypothesized that a sec- smallpox was far less than among the uninoculated. History has Escherichia coli See also See also See also be seen if a mutation is present.
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