By E. Mojok. Stevens-Henager College. 2018.
Identify priorities of nursing care to maintain patient safety during this period generic super avana 160mg with visa. Anesthetic drugs are given to prevent pain and rapid loss of consciousness and provides a pleasant induction promote relaxation during surgery purchase 160mg super avana mastercard, childbirth, some diagnos- and recovery. Its rapid onset of action is attributed to rapid tic tests, and some treatments. They interrupt the conduction circulation to the brain and accumulation in the neuronal tis- of painful nerve impulses from a site of injury to the brain. The drugs are short acting because they are quickly re- distributed from the brain to highly perfused organs (eg, heart, GENERAL ANESTHESIA liver, kidneys) and muscles, and then to fatty tissues. Because they are slowly released from fatty tissues back into the blood- General anesthesia is a state of profound central nervous sys- stream, anesthesia, drowsiness, and cardiopulmonary depres- tem (CNS) depression, during which there is complete loss of sion persist into the postoperative period. Duration of action sensation, consciousness, pain perception, and memory. It has can be prolonged and accumulation is more likely to occur three components: hypnosis, analgesia, and muscle relaxation. Several different drugs are usually combined to produce de- An anesthetic barbiturate or propofol may be used alone sired levels of these components without excessive CNS de- for anesthesia during brief diagnostic tests or surgical pro- pression. Barbiturates are contraindicated in patients with dosages of potent general anesthetics. Peripheral nerve block involves injecting the anesthetic sion produced and thereby vary in the rate of induction, anes- solution into the area of a larger nerve trunk or a nerve thetic potency, degree of muscle relaxation, and analgesic plexus at some access point along the course of a nerve potency. CNS depression is determined by the concentration distant from the area to be anesthetized. Field block anesthesia involves injecting the anesthetic on the rate at which the drug is transported from the alveoli solution around the area to be anesthetized. Spinal anesthesia involves injecting the anesthetic the CNS, redistributed by the blood to other body tissues, and agent into the cerebrospinal ﬂuid, usually in the lum- eliminated by the lungs. The anesthetic blocks sensory impulses at readily by varying the concentration of the inhaled anesthetic the root of peripheral nerves as they enter the spinal gas. Spinal anesthesia is especially useful for surgery specially trained people, such as anesthesiologists and nurse involving the lower abdomen and legs. The body area anesthetized is determined by the level to which the drug solution rises in the spinal canal. This, in turn, is determined by the site of injection, the posi- REGIONAL ANESTHESIA tion of the client, and the speciﬁc gravity, amount, and concentration of the injected solution. Regional anesthesia involves loss of sensation and motor ac- Solutions of local anesthetics used for spinal anes- tivity in localized areas of the body. The drugs act to heavy solutions are diluted with dextrose, have a higher decrease the permeability of nerve cell membranes to ions, es- speciﬁc gravity than cerebrospinal ﬂuid, and gravitate pecially sodium. This action stabilizes and reduces excitability toward the head when the client is tilted in a head-down of cell membranes. Hypobaric or light solutions are diluted with impulses cannot be initiated or conducted by the anesthetized distilled water, have a lower speciﬁc gravity than cere- nerves. As a result, the drugs prevent the cells from respond- brospinal ﬂuid, and gravitate toward the lower (caudal) ing to pain impulses and other sensory stimuli. Epidural anesthesia, which involves injecting the anes- or applied to mucous membrane. The rate and amount of ab- thetic into the epidural space, is used most often in ob- sorption depend mainly on the drug dose and blood flow to stetrics during labor and delivery. The highest concentrations are used to provide analgesia (often with a combination of found in organs with a large blood supply (eg, brain, heart, a local anesthetic and an opioid) for clients with post- liver, lungs). Epineph- In general, large amounts, high concentrations, or in- rine, a vasoconstrictor, is often added to a local anesthetic to jections into highly vascular areas (eg, head and neck, slow systemic absorption, prolong anesthetic effects, and intercostal and paracervical sites) produce peak plasma control bleeding. Duration depends on the chemical char- molecules diffuse out of neurons into the bloodstream. The acteristics of the drug used and the rate at which it drugs are then transported to the liver for metabolism, mainly leaves nerve tissue. The metabolites are excreted in the as epinephrine, has been added, onset and duration of urine, along with a small amount of unchanged drug. The area anesthetized may be the site also controls bleeding in the affected area. Speciﬁc types of anesthesia attained with local anesthetic drugs include the following: ADJUNCTS TO ANESTHESIA 1. Topical or surface anesthesia involves applying local anesthetics to skin or mucous membrane. Such applica- Several nonanesthetic drugs are used as adjuncts or supple- tion makes sensory receptors unresponsive to pain, itch- ments to anesthetic drugs. Local anesthetics for topical use and are described here only in relation to anesthesia. Drug are usually ingredients of various ointments, solutions, groups include antianxiety agents and sedative-hypnotics or lotions designed for use at particular sites. The neuromuscular blocking agents nose, oral mucosa, perineum, hemorrhoids, and skin. Inﬁltration involves injecting the local anesthetic solution Goals of preanesthetic medication include decreased anxi- directly into or very close to the area to be anesthetized. Like acetylcholine, reduced adverse effects associated with some inhalation anes- the drug combines with cholinergic receptors at the motor thetics (eg, bradycardia, coughing, salivation, postanesthetic endplate to produce depolarization and muscle contraction vomiting), and reduced perioperative stress. Repolarization and further muscle contraction are usually of two or three drugs, are used. Muscle paralysis is preceded by muscle spasms, which Antianxiety Agents may damage muscles.
Acupuncture: Needle San Yin Jiao (Sp 6) and Guan Yuan (CV 4) with supplementing hand technique and burn moxa on the heads of the needles or warm the points with a moxa pole order 160 mg super avana with amex. Tuina: In addition to the same tuina manuevers for kidney qi vacu- ity above super avana 160mg fast delivery, chafe Ming Men (GV 4) and chafe Ba Liao (Bl 31-34). This makes Zhi Bai Di Huang Wan (Anemarrhena & Phellodendron Rehmannia Pills) which are also available in ready-made pill form. If there is concomitant spleen qi vacuity, one can add 6-18 grams of Huang Qi (Radix Astragali) and 3- 10 grams of Dang Shen (Radix Codonopsitis) to fortify the spleen and boost the qi. If there is concomitant food stagnation, one should remove Shu Di and add 3-10 grams each of Bai Zhu (Rhizoma Atractylodis Macrocephalae) and Ji Nei Jin (Endothelium Corneum Gigeriae Galli) and 1-6 grams of Sha Ren (Fructus Amomi). Acupuncture: Needle San Yin Jiao (Sp 6), Tai Xi (Ki 3), and Guan Yuan (CV 4) with supplementing hand technique Tuina: In addition to the same tuina manuevers for kidney qi vacu- ity above, press-rotate San Yin Jiao (Sp 6) and press-rotate Er Ren Shang Ma (Two Men on a Horse) located in the depression on either side of the metacarpal bone of the liuttle finger on the back of the hand just proiximal to the metacarpal-phalkangeal joint. Spleen-lung qi vacuity Signs & symptoms: Nocturnal enuresis, frequent and profuse uri- nation, a lusterless facial complexion, fatigued spirit, lack of strength, devitalized appetite, thin, sloppy stools, a pale tongue with thin, white fur, and a fine, forceless pulse Treatment principles: Fortify the spleen and boost the qi Treatment Based on Pattern Discrimination 47 Guiding formula: Bu Zhong Yi Qi Tang (Supplement the Center & Boost the Qi Decoction) Ren Shen (Radix Ginseng), 3-6g, or Dang Shen (Radix Codonopsitis), 6-15g Huang Qi (Radix Astragali), 6-18g Bai Zhu (Rhizoma Atractylodis Macrocephalae), 3-10g Dang Gui (Radix Angelicae Sinensis), 3-10g Chen Pi (Pericarpium Citri Reticulatae), 1. If there are loose stools, add 3-6 grams of Pao Jiang (blast-fried Rhizoma Zingiberis). If there is difficulty waking the child up, add 3-10 grams of Shi Chang Pu (Rhizoma Acori Tatarinowii). Acupuncture: Needle San Yin Jiao (Sp 6), Zu San Li (St 36), and Guan Yuan (CV 4) with supplementing hand technique. Tuina: Press-rotate Pi Shu (Bl 20), press-rotate Fei Jing (Lung Channel), and press-rotate Xin Shu (Bl 15). Liver channel damp heat Signs & symptoms: Nocturnal enuresis, frequent, scanty urina- tion, yellowish urine, a rash and impatient nature, heat in the heart of the palms and soles, dry, red, possibly chapped lips, a red tongue with yellow fur, and a bowstring, slippery pulse Note: This pattern is not commonly seen in pediatric enuresis, especially in cases of PNE. In clinical practice, it is extremely impor- tant to discriminate this pattern from the more commonly seen vacuity patterns above. Acupuncture: Needle San Yin Jiao (Sp 6) and Guan Yuan (CV 4) with draining hand technique Tuina: Push Gan Jing (Liver Channel), push Da Chang Jing (Large Intestine Channel), and push Tian He Shui (Milky Way) located on the midline of the ventral surface of the forearm from the carpal crease to the elbow crease. BASIC PATTERNS & FORMULAS FOR ENURESIS TO MEMORIZE PATTERN FORMULA Kidney qi vacuity Jin Suo Gu Jing Wan Kidney yang vacuity Shen Qi Wan Kidney yin vacuity Liu Wei Di Huang Wan Spleen-lung qi vacuity Bu Zhong Yi Qi Tang Liver channel damp heat Long Dan Xie Gan Tang Treatment Based on Pattern Discrimination 49 Remarks: The previous standard patterns and their treatments are only for textbook purposes. Most children who wet their bed present some combina- tion of kidney-spleen-lung vacuity. Therefore, most internally administered Chinese herbal treatments for pedi- atric enuresis will include some kidney supplements, some spleen supplements, and some securing and astringing medicinals. The following chapter presents how real-life Chinese doctors have treated their patients. The vast majority of diseases are treated most effectively by using one particular modality, whether it be tuina, acupuncture, external or internal Chinese medicinals, or dietary therapy. However, in the treatment of enuresis, all these forms of treatment are effective as indicated by the research that follows as well as other forms of therapy including magnet, laser, or umbilical therapy to name a few. In clinic, these various treatments may be used by them- selves or in combination. In stubborn cases of enuresis, these treatments can also be used in tandem with modern Western medical approaches, such as alarm therapy. Acupuncturists may improve their treatment outcomes by adding tuina or externally applied medicinals to their treatment protocol, while herbalists may decide that externally applied medicinals or a referral to an acupuncturist may be useful for improving their treatment out- comes. In addition, the wealth of treatments included herein will allow the practitioner various options if their first treatment is not successful or if the child/family is not compliant with the modality the practitioner has suggested. The research abstracts in this chapter have been divided into vari- ous categories based on the treatment modalities employed. The external treatments include various medicinal formulas applied to acupuncture points or to the umbilicus (i. The 52 Treating Pediatric Bed-wetting with Acupuncture & Chinese Medicine combined therapies section reviews articles in which TCM doc- tors combine various modalities together to improve their treat- ment outcomes. The same disease, different treatments sec- tion includes any modality not previously covered in the above sections. Note: In the following abstracts of Chinese research on pediatric enuresis, the reader will commonly see three outcomes: cured, improved, and not improved. These refer to standardized out- comes criteria as found in Zhong Yi Bing Zheng Zhen Duan Liao Xiao Biao Sun (Criteria for the Chinese Medical Diagnosis of Diseases & Patterns and Treatment Outcomes) published by the National Chinese Medical Press in Nanjing in 1994. According to these criteria, cured means that the enuresis has been eliminat- ed and has not returned after treatment, improvement means that the frequency of the enuresis has been reduced and the child is able to wake at night to urinate, and no improvement means that there has been no change in the enuresis. Ancient formulas This section describes the use of so-called jing fang (classic for- mulas) or gu fang (ancient formulas) to treat enuresis. These for- mulas may either have been used in the past to treat enuresis or they may have been used traditionally to treat other diseases but have been recently modified by doctors to treat enuresis. This is a common approach in TCM and is the one that I most commonly apply in my own clinical practice, whether to treat pediatric enure- sis or any disease. Each of these formulas have been time-tested, sometimes over almost 2,000 years. From The Treatment of 30 Cases of Pediatric Enuresis with Wu Zi Si Jun Tang (Five Seeds & Four Gentlemen Decoction) by Xiong Lei, Jiang Su Zhong Yi (Jiangsu Chinese Medicine), 2000, #2, p. All patients had the following symptoms to varying Chinese Research on the Treatment of Pediatric Enuresis 53 degrees: a yellow facial complexion, emaciated body, lusterless hair, and poor appetite. The results were recorded after one course of treatment and a return visit three months later. Study outcomes: Twelve cases were cured, 16 cases improved, and two cases had no effect. No cases of enuresis returned or increased after stopping treatment, and there were no side effects noted by any patients during the treatment. The shorter the disease duration, the more pro- nounced the treatment outcome.
FUNCTIONAL NEUROIMAGING OF RECOVERY 147 NEUROIMAGING TECHNIQUES 148 Positron Emission Tomography • Single Photon Emission Computerized Tomography • Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging • Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation • Magnetoencephalography • High Resolution Electroencephalography • Intrinsic Optical Imaging Signals • Near-Infrared Spectroscopy • Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy • Transcranial Doppler • Combined Methods LIMITATIONS OF FUNCTIONAL NEUROIMAGING STUDIES 160 General Limitations • Subtraction Studies • Timing of Studies METABOLIC IMAGING AT REST AFTER INJURY 163 Stroke • Aphasia • Traumatic Brain Injury • Persistent Vegetative State ACTIVATION STUDIES: FUNCTIONAL REORGANIZATION AFTER INJURY 167 Sensorimotor Reorganization After Central Nervous System Lesion • Peripheral Nerve Transection TRAINING-INDUCED REORGANIZATION 176 Sensorimotor Training • Aphasia • Cognition • Cross-Modal Plasticity NEUROPHARMACOLOGIC MODULATION 184 Monaminergic Agents • Other Agents SUMMARY 185 4 order super avana 160mg otc. NEUROSTIMULATORS AND NEUROPROSTHESES 193 PERIPHERAL NERVOUS SYSTEM DEVICES 194 Functional Neuromuscular Stimulation • Nerve Cuffs CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM DEVICES 198 Neuroaugmentation • Spinal Cord Stimulators • Brain–Machine Interfaces • Sensory Prostheses ROBOTIC AIDS 203 Upper Extremity • Lower Extremity TELETHERAPY 206 SUMMARY 206 Part II order super avana 160 mg on line. THE REHABILITATION TEAM 213 THE TEAM APPROACH 213 The Rehabilitation Milieu Contents xi PHYSICIANS 215 Responsibilities • Interventions NURSES 218 Responsibilities • Interventions PHYSICAL THERAPISTS 219 Responsibilities • Interventions for Skilled Action OCCUPATIONAL THERAPISTS 231 Responsibilities • Interventions for Personal Independence SPEECH AND LANGUAGE THERAPISTS 235 Responsibilities • Interventions for Dysarthria and Aphasia NEUROPSYCHOLOGISTS 242 SOCIAL WORKERS 243 RECREATIONAL THERAPISTS 243 OTHER TEAM MEMBERS 244 SUMMARY 244 6. APPROACHES FOR WALKING 250 NORMAL GAIT 250 NEUROLOGIC GAIT DEVIATIONS 252 Hemiparetic Gait • Paraparetic Gait • Gait with Peripheral Neuropathy • Gait with Poliomyelitis QUANTITATIVE GAIT ANALYSIS 258 Temporal Measures • Kinematics • Electromyography • Kinetics • Energy Expenditure APPROACHES TO RETRAINING AMBULATION 262 Conventional Training • Task-Oriented Training • Assistive Devices SUMMARY 268 7. ASSESSMENT AND OUTCOME MEASURES FOR CLINICAL TRIALS 271 PRINCIPLES OF MEASUREMENT 272 Types of Measurements • Reliability and Validity • Choosing Measurement Tools MEASURES OF IMPAIRMENT 275 Consciousness • Cognition • Speech and Language • Sensorimotor Impairment Scales BEHAVIORAL MEASURES 288 Behavioral Modification • Neurobehavioral Scales MEASURES OF DISABILITY 289 Activities of Daily Living • Instrumental Activities of Daily Living • Mixed Functional Scales xii Contents MEASURES OF HEALTH-RELATED QUALITY OF LIFE 298 Instruments • Adjustment Scales • Style Of Questions MEASURES OF HANDICAP 302 MEASURES OF COST-EFFECTIVENESS 303 STUDY DESIGNS FOR REHABILITATION RESEARCH 303 Ethical Considerations • Types of Clinical Trials • Confounding Issues in Research Designs • Statistical Analyses SUMMARY 314 8. ACUTE AND CHRONIC MEDICAL MANAGEMENT 323 DEEP VEIN THROMBOSIS 323 Prevention ORTHOSTATIC HYPOTENSION 324 THE NEUROGENIC BLADDER 325 Pathophysiology • Management BOWEL DYSFUNCTION 329 Pathophysiology • Management NUTRITION AND DYSPHAGIA 330 Pathophysiology • Assessment • Treatment PRESSURE SORES 334 Pathophysiology • Management PAIN 336 Acute Pain • Chronic Central Pain • Weakness-Associated Shoulder Pain • Neck, Back, and Myofascial Pain DISORDERS OF BONE METABOLISM 348 Heterotopic Ossification • Osteoporosis SPASTICITY 348 Management CONTRACTURES 357 MOOD DISORDERS 358 Posttraumatic Stress Disorder • Depression SLEEP DISORDERS 363 SUMMARY 364 Part III. STROKE 375 EPIDEMIOLOGY 375 Fiscal Impact • Stroke Syndromes Contents xiii MEDICAL INTERVENTIONS 377 Frequency of Complications • Secondary Prevention of Stroke INPATIENT REHABILITATION 385 Eligibility for Rehabilitation • Trials of Locus of Treatment • Discharge OUTPATIENT REHABILITATION 389 Locus of Treatment • Pulse Therapy • Sexual Function • Community Reintegration OUTCOMES OF IMPAIRMENTS 392 Overview of Outcomes • The Unaffected Limbs • Impairment-Related Functional Outcomes OUTCOMES OF DISABILITIES 399 Overview of Outcomes • Upper Extremity Use • Ambulation • Predictors of Functional Gains CLINICAL TRIALS OF FUNCTIONAL INTERVENTIONS 404 Trials of Schools of Therapy • Task-Oriented Approaches • Concentrated Practice • Assistive Trainers • Adjuvant Pharmacotherapy • Functional Electrical Stimulation • Biofeedback • Acupuncture TRIALS OF INTERVENTIONS FOR APHASIA 420 Rate of Gains • Prognosticators • Results of Interventions • Pharmacotherapy TRIALS FOR COGNITIVE AND AFFECTIVE DISORDERS 425 Memory Disorders • Visuospatial and Attentional Disorders • Affective Disorders SUMMARY 436 10. ACUTE AND CHRONIC MYELOPATHIES 451 EPIDEMIOLOGY 451 Traumatic Spinal Cord Injury • Nontraumatic Disorders MEDICAL REHABILITATIVE MANAGEMENT 458 Time of Onset to Start of Rehabilitation • Specialty Units • Surgical Interventions • Medical Interventions SENSORIMOTOR CHANGES AFTER PARTIAL AND COMPLETE INJURY 466 Neurologic Impairment Levels • Evolution of Strength and Sensation • Changes in Patients with Paraplegia • Changes in Patients with Quadriplegia • Mechanisms of Sensorimotor Recovery FUNCTIONAL OUTCOMES 473 Self-Care Skills • Ambulation TRIALS OF SPECIFIC INTERVENTIONS 477 Mobility • Strengthening and Conditioning • Upper Extremity Function • Neural Prostheses • Spasticity LONG-TERM CARE 485 Aging • Sexual Function • Employment • Marital Status • Adjustment and Quality of Life SUMMARY 489 xiv Contents 11. TRAUMATIC BRAIN INJURY 497 EPIDEMIOLOGY 498 Economic Impact • Prevention PATHOPHYSIOLOGY 499 Diffuse Axonal Injury • Hypoxic-Ischemic Injury • Focal Injury • Neuroimaging NEUROMEDICAL COMPLICATIONS 503 Nutrition • Hypothalamic-Pituitary Dysfunction • Pain • Seizures • Delayed-Onset Hydrocephalus • Acquired Movement Disorders • Persistent Vegetative State ASSESSMENTS AND OUTCOME MEASURES 510 Stages of Recovery • Disability PREDICTORS OF FUNCTIONAL OUTCOME 513 Level of Consciousness • Duration of Coma and Amnesia • Neuropsychologic Tests • Population Outcomes LEVELS OF REHABILITATIVE CARE 515 Locus of Rehabilitation • Efficacy of Programs REHABILITATION INTERVENTIONS AND THEIR EFFICACY 519 Overview of Functional Outcomes • Physical Impairment and Disability • Psychosocial Disability • Cognitive Impairments • Neurobehavioral Disorders • Neuropsychiatric Disorders SPECIAL POPULATIONS 535 Pediatric Patients • Geriatric Patients • Mild Head Injury ETHICAL ISSUES 537 SUMMARY 538 12. The central (CNS) Overview of Motor Control and peripheral (PNS) nervous system matrix is Cortical Motor Networks a rich resource for learning and for retraining. Somatosensory Cortical Networks This chapter begins with the structural frame- Pyramidal Tract Projections work of interconnected neural components Subcortical Systems that contribute to motor control for walking, Brain Stem Pathways reaching, and grasping, and to cognition and Spinal Sensorimotor Activity mood. I then review what we know about cel- STUDIES OF REPRESENTATIONAL lular mechanisms that may be manipulated by PLASTICITY physical, cognitive, and pharmacologic therapies Motor Maps to lessen impairments and disabilities. These Sensory Maps discussions of functional neuroanatomy provide BASIC MECHANISMS OF SYNAPTIC a map for mechanisms relevant to neural repair, PLASTICITY functional neuroimaging, and theory-based Hebbian Plasticity practices for neurologic rehabilitation. Cortical Ensemble Activity Injuries and diseases of the brain and spinal Long-Term Potentiation and Depression cord damage clusters of neurons and discon- Molecular Mechanisms nect their feedforward and feedback pro- Growth of Dendritic Spines jections. The victims of neurologic disorders Neurotrophins often improve, however. Mechanisms of Neuromodulators activity-dependent learning within spared mod- COGNITIVE NETWORKS ules of like-acting neurons are a fundamental Overview of the Organization property of the neurobiology of functional gains. This plasticity may be no different than Network what occurs during early development, when a Emotional Regulatory Network new physiologic organization emerges from in- Spatial Awareness Network trinsic drives on the properties of neurons and Language Network their synapses. Similar mechanisms drive how SUMMARY living creatures learn new skills and abilities. Al- rience and practice lead to adaptations at though neuroanatomy and neuropathology all levels. Knowledge of mechanisms of this may seem like old arts, studies of nonhuman activity-dependent plasticity may lead to the primates and of man continue to reveal the design of better sensorimotor, cognitive, phar- connections and interactions of neurons. Motor skills important role in synaptic function, each cubic are gained primarily through the cerebral or- millimeter of gray matter contains 3 km of axon ganization for procedural memory. The other and each cubic millimeter of white matter in- large classification of memory, declarative cludes 9 meters of axon. The tedious work of knowledge, depends upon hippocampal activ- understanding the dynamic interplay of this ity. The first is about how to, the latter is the matrix is driven by new histochemical ap- what of facts and events. Procedural knowl- proaches that can label cells and their projec- edge, compared to learning facts, usually takes tions, by electrical microstimulation of small considerable practice over time. Skills learning ensembles of neurons, by physiological record- is also associated with experience-specific or- ings from single cells and small groups of neu- ganizational changes within the sensorimotor rons, by molecular analyses that localize and network for motor control. A model of motor quantify neurotransmitters, receptors and gene control, then, needs to account for skills learn- products, and by comparisons with the archi- ing. To successfully manipulate the controllers tecture of human and nonhuman cortical neu- of movement, the clinician needs a multilevel, rons and fiber arrangements. The vista includes Functional neuroimaging techniques, such a reductionist analysis, examining the proper- as positron emission tomography (PET), func- ties of motor patterns generated by networks, tional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), neurons, synapses, and molecules. Our sight- and transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) line also includes a synthesis that takes a sys- allow comparisons between the findings from tems approach to the relationships between animal research and the functional neu- networks and behaviors, including how motor roanatomy of people with and without CNS le- patterns generate movements modulated by ac- sions. These computerized techniques offer in- tion-related sensory feedback and by cognition. Overview of Motor Control What neuroscientists have established about the molecular and morphologic bases for learn- Mountcastle wrote, The brain is a complex of ing motor and cognitive skills has become more widely and reciprocally interconnected sys- critical for rehabilitationists to understand. Researchers have begun, anatomical connections and similar functional however, to describe some clever solutions for properties. Signals may flow along a variety of path- Each theory contains elements that describe, ways within the network. Any locus connected physiologically or metaphorically, some of the within the network may initiate activity, as both processes of motor control. These theories lead externally generated and internally generated to experimentally backed notions that help ex- signals may reenter the system. MOTOR CONTROL What are some of the essences of brain and spinal cord interplay relevant to understanding Sherrington proposed one of the first physio- how patients reacquire the ability to move with logically based models of motor control. Many models successfully predict aspects decade or two, much of what physical and oc- of motor performance.
They are or- can see and hear environmental activities and conversations super avana 160 mg sale. Succinylcholine is the include age; the specific procedure to be performed and its CHAPTER 14 ANESTHETICS 223 TABLE 14–1 General Anesthetics Generic/Trade Name Characteristics Remarks General Inhalation Anesthetics Desﬂurane (Suprane) Similar to isoﬂurane Used for induction and maintenance of general anesthesia Enﬂurane (Ethrane) Nonexplosive discount super avana 160mg with amex, nonflammable volatile liquid; similar A frequently used agent to halothane but may produce better analgesia and muscle relaxation; sensitizes heart to cate- cholamines—increases risk of cardiac dysrhyth- mias; renal or hepatic toxicity not reported Halothane (Fluothane) Nonexplosive, nonﬂammable volatile liquid Halothane has largely been replaced by newer Advantages: agents with increased efﬁcacy, decreased adverse 1. Does not irritate respiratory tract mucosa; adequate analgesia and muscle relaxation at a therefore does not increase saliva and tracheo- dosage that is not likely to produce signiﬁcant ad- bronchial secretions verse effects. Depresses pharyngeal and laryngeal reﬂexes, increase analgesic effects; a neuromuscular which decreases risk of laryngospasm and blocking agent is given to increase muscle relax- bronchospasm ation; and an IV barbiturate is used to produce Disadvantages: rapid, smooth induction, after which halothane is 1. Depresses contractility of the heart and vascu- given to maintain anesthesia. Bradycardia is common; ventricular dysrhythmias are uncom- mon unless ventilation is inadequate. Sensitizes heart to catecholamines; increases risk of cardiac dysrhythmias 5. Depresses respiration and may produce hypox- emia and respiratory acidosis (hypercarbia) 6. May cause malignant hyperthermia Isoﬂurane (Forane) Similar to halothane but less likely to cause cardio- Used for induction and maintenance of general vascular depression and ventricular dysrhythmias. Nitrous oxide Nonexplosive gas; good analgesic, weak anesthetic; Used in balanced anesthesia with IV barbiturates, one of oldest and safest anesthetics; causes no neuromuscular blocking agents, opioid anal- appreciable damage to vital organs unless hy- gesics, and more potent inhalation anesthetics. Note: Nitrous oxide is an gesia in dentistry, obstetrics, and brief surgical incomplete anesthetic; that is, by itself, it cannot procedures. Sevoﬂurane (Ultane) Similar to isoﬂurane Used for induction and maintenance of general anesthesia General Intravenous Anesthetics Alfentanil (Alfenta) Opioid analgesic–anesthetic related to fentanyl and May be used as a primary anesthetic or an analgesic sufentanil. It produces sedative and used together for neuroleptanalgesia and com- antiemetic effects. Fentanyl citrate (Sublimaze) is bined with nitrous oxide for neuroleptanesthesia. Innovar is a ﬁxed-dose combination of the riety of diagnostic tests or minor surgical proce- two drugs. Additional doses of fentanyl are often dures can be done, such as bronchoscopy and needed because its analgesic effect lasts approxi- burn dressings. Consciousness returns rapidly, but recently issued a warning about serious cardiac respiratory depression may last 3–4 hours into dysrhythmias, including torsades de pointes, as- the postoperative recovery period. Ketamine (Ketalar) Rapid-acting nonbarbiturate anesthetic; produces Used most often for brief surgical, diagnostic, or marked analgesia, sedation, immobility, amnesia, therapeutic procedures. It also may be used to in- and a lack of awareness of surroundings (called duce anesthesia. If used for major surgery, it dissociative anesthesia); may be given IV or IM; must be supplemented by other general anesthet- awakening may require several hours; during re- ics. It is generally contraindicated in clients with covery, unpleasant psychic symptoms may occur, increased intracranial pressure, severe coronary including dreams and hallucinations; vomiting, artery disease, hypertension, or psychiatric dis- hypersalivation, and transient skin rashes also orders. Methohexital sodium (Brevital) An ultrashort-acting barbiturate similar to thiopental See thiopental, below. May cause hypotension, nance of general anesthesia or sedation in inten- apnea, and other signs of CNS depression. Remifentanil (Ultiva) An opioid analgesic–anesthetic with a rapid onset Used for induction and maintenance of general and short duration of action anesthesia Sufentanil (Sufenta) A synthetic opioid analgesic-anesthetic related to May be used as a primary anesthetic or an anal- fentanyl. Compared with fentanyl, it is more po- gesic adjunct in balanced anesthesia tent and faster acting and may allow a more rapid recovery. Thiopental sodium Ultrashort-acting barbiturate, used almost exclu- Thiopental is commonly used. A single dose produces (Pentothal) sively in general anesthesia; excellent hypnotic unconsciousness in less than 30 seconds and but does not produce signiﬁcant analgesia or lasts 20–30 minutes. Usually given to induce anes- muscle relaxation; given IV by intermittent injec- thesia. For major surgery, it is usually supplemented by inhalation anesthetics and muscle relaxants. Se- other disorders are also involved, the risks of anesthesia and vere anxiety, for example, may be a contraindication to re- surgery are greatly increased. Because of the risks, general gional anesthesia, and the client may require larger doses of anesthetics and neuromuscular blocking agents should be preanesthetic sedative-type medication. General Anesthesia General anesthesia can be used for almost any surgical, diag- Regional and Local Anesthesia nostic, or therapeutic procedure. If a medical disorder of a vital organ system (cardiovascular, respiratory, renal) is present, it Regional or local anesthesia is usually safer than general should be corrected before anesthesia, when possible. For CHAPTER 14 ANESTHETICS 225 TABLE 14–2 Neuromuscular Blocking Agents (Skeletal Muscle Relaxants) Generic/Trade Name Characteristics Uses Depolarizing Type Succinylcholine (Anectine) Short acting after single dose; action can be pro- All types of surgery and brief procedures, such as endoscopy longed by repeated injections or continuous and endotracheal intubation intravenous infusion. Nondepolarizing Type Atracurium (Tracrium) Intermediate acting* Adjunct to general anesthesia Cisatracurium (Nimbex) Intermediate acting* Same as rocuronium, below Doxacurium (Nuromax) Long acting* Adjunct to general anesthesia Metocurine (Metubine) Long acting; more potent than tubocurarine* Same as vecuronium, below Mivacurium (Mivacron) Short acting* Adjunct to general anesthesia Pancuronium (Pavulon) Long acting* Mainly during surgery after general anesthesia has been induced; occasionally to aid endotracheal intubation or mechanical ventilation Pipecuronium (Arduan) Long acting* Adjunct to general anesthesia; recommended only for proce- dures expected to last 90 minutes or longer Rocuronium (Zemuron) Intermediate acting* Adjunct to general anesthesia to aid endotracheal intubation and provide muscle relaxation during surgery or mechanical ventilation Tubocurarine Long acting; the prototype of nondepolarizing Adjunct to general anesthesia; occasionally to facilitate drugs* mechanical ventilation Vecuronium (Norcuron) Intermediate acting* Adjunct to general anesthesia; to facilitate endotracheal intubation and mechanical ventilation *All the nondepolarizing agents may cause hypotension; effects of the drugs can be reversed by neostigmine (Prostigmin). TABLE 14–3 Local Anesthetics Generic/Trade Name Characteristics Clinical Uses Articaine (Septocaine, Newer drug, formulated with epinephrine Local inﬁltration and nerve block for dental and peri- Septodont) Effects occur in 1–6 min and last 1 hour odontal procedures or oral surgery Benzocaine (Americaine) Poorly water soluble Topical anesthesia of skin and mucous membrane to Minimal systemic absorption relieve pain and itching of sunburn, other minor Available in numerous preparations, including aerosol burns and wounds, skin abrasions, earache, hemor- sprays, throat lozenges, rectal suppositories, lotions, rhoids, sore throat, and other conditions and ointments May cause allergic reactions Effects occur in 5 min or less and last 15–45 min Bupivacaine (Marcaine) Given by injection Regional anesthesia by inﬁltration, nerve block, and May cause systemic toxicity epidural anesthesia during childbirth. It is not used Effects occur in 5 min and last 2–4 hours with for spinal anesthesia. With injection, effects occur in 2–5 min and last 15–60 min Proparacaine (Alcaine) Causes minimal irritation of the eye but may cause Topical anesthesia of the eye for tonometry and for allergic contact dermatitis of the fingers removal of sutures, foreign bodies, and cataracts Ropivacaine (Naropin) Given by injection or epidural infusion Obstetric or postoperative analgesia and local or With epidural infusion, effects occur in 10–30 min and regional surgical anesthesia last up to 6 hours Tetracaine (Pontocaine) Applied topically Topical anesthesia Formerly injected for regional anesthesia but now rarely injected because of possible allergic reactions example, spinal anesthesia is often the anesthesia of choice for 2. Choice of a local anesthetic depends mainly on the rea- surgery involving the lower abdomen and lower extremities, son for use or the type of regional anesthesia desired. A major advantage of spinal anesthesia is that it causes topical and injectable forms.
The recommended initial dose is 200 mg super avana 160mg, gradually imen order super avana 160mg fast delivery, gradually tapering the dose over 2 to 4 weeks delays increased to 300 mg. The recommended maintenance dose is the lowest amount that maintains remission. With lithium, dosage should be based on serum lithium zyme system, which metabolizes many drugs, especially levels, control of symptoms, and occurrence of adverse those metabolized by the 1A2, 2D6, and 3A4 groups of en- effects. Inhibiting the enzymes that normally metabolize or doses are only slightly lower than toxic doses and be- inactivate a drug produces the same effect as an excessive cause clients vary widely in rates of lithium absorption dose of the inhibited drug. Thus, a dose that is therapeutic in one risks of adverse effects are greatly increased. Lower doses are indi- actions include the following: cated for older adults and for clients with conditions • Fluvoxamine inhibits both 1A2 and 3A4 enzymes. In- that impair lithium excretion (eg, diuretic drug therapy, hibition of 1A2 enzymes slows metabolism of aceta- dehydration, low-salt diet, renal impairment, decreased minophen, caffeine, clozapine, haloperidol, olanzapine, cardiac output). Inhibition of 3A4 enzymes slows metabolism of drug concentration should be measured two or three benzodiazepines (alprazolam, midazolam, triazolam), cal- times weekly in the morning, 12 hours after the last cium channel blockers (diltiazem, nifedipine, verapamil), dose of lithium. For most clients, the therapeutic cyclosporine, erythromycin, protease inhibitors (anti- range of serum levels is 0. Management con- • Nefazodone also inhibits 3A4 enzymes and slows the sists of diuresis, acidiﬁcation of urine, or hemodialysis metabolism of many drugs (see ﬂuvoxamine, above). General treatment measures include hospital- • Mirtazapine and venlafaxine are not thought to have ization, decreasing absorption (eg, giving activated clinically signiﬁcant effects on cytochrome P450 en- charcoal to conscious clients), and supporting vital func- zymes, but few studies have been done and effects are tions. Hypotension and excessive sedation may occur doses of both the TCA and the other drug may be needed. There are no speciﬁc antidotes; treat- ment is symptomatic and supportive. Toxicity of Antidepressants and Lithium: Lithium overdose: Toxic manifestations occur with serum Recognition and Management lithium levels above 2. Treatment involves sup- occur in depressed clients who intentionally ingest large portive care to maintain vital functions, including cor- amounts of drug in suicide attempts and in young children who rection of ﬂuid and electrolyte imbalances. Measures to overdoses, hemodialysis is preferred because it removes prevent acute poisoning from drug overdose include dispens- lithium from the body. General measures to treat acute poisoning in- Prevention and Management clude early detection of signs and symptoms, stopping the of Withdrawal Symptoms drug, and instituting treatment if indicated. Speciﬁc measures include the following: Withdrawal symptoms have been reported with sudden dis- SSRI overdose: Symptoms include nausea, vomiting, continuation of most antidepressant drugs. In general, symp- agitation, restlessness, hypomania, and other signs of toms occur more rapidly and may be more intense with drugs CNS stimulation. As with other psychotropic drugs, and supportive treatment, such as maintaining an ade- these drugs should be tapered in dosage and discontinued quate airway and ventilation and administering activated gradually unless severe drug toxicity, anaphylactic reactions, charcoal. Most anti- TCA overdose: Symptoms occur 1 to 4 hours after drug depressants may be tapered and discontinued over approxi- ingestion and consist primarily of CNS depression and mately 1 week without serious withdrawal symptoms. For a cardiovascular effects (eg, nystagmus, tremor, restless- client on maintenance drug therapy, the occurrence of with- ness, seizures, hypotension, dysrhythmias, myocardial drawal symptoms may indicate that the client has omitted depression). Death usually results from cardiac, respi- doses or stopped taking the drug. Management of TCA The most clearly deﬁned withdrawal syndromes are associ- toxicity consists of performing gastric lavage and giv- ated with SSRIs and TCAs. With SSRIs, withdrawal symp- ing activated charcoal to reduce drug absorption, estab- toms include dizziness, nausea, and headache and last from lishing and maintaining a patent airway, performing several days to several weeks. More serious symptoms may in- continuous ECG monitoring of comatose clients or clude aggression, hypomania, mood disturbances, and suicidal those with respiratory insufﬁciency or wide QRS inter- tendencies. Fluoxetine has a long half-life and has not been vals, giving intravenous ﬂuids and vasopressors for se- associated with withdrawal symptoms. Other SSRIs have vere hypotension, and giving intravenous phenytoin short half-lives and may cause withdrawal reactions if stopped (Dilantin) or fosphenytoin (Cerebyx) or a parenteral abruptly. Paroxetine, which has a half-life of approximately benzodiazepine (eg, lorazepam) if seizures occur. Symptoms CHAPTER 10 DRUGS FOR MOOD DISORDERS: ANTIDEPRESSANTS AND MOOD STABILIZERS 175 may include a ﬂu-like syndrome with nausea, vomiting, fatigue, porting a need for lower doses of TCAs and greater muscle aches, dizziness, headache, and insomnia. The short- susceptibility to anticholinergic effects, whereas others acting SSRIs should be tapered in dosage and gradually dis- report no differences between Hispanics and whites. With TCAs, the main concern is over those with strong an- ticholinergic effects. When stopped abruptly, especially with Use in Perioperative Periods high doses, these drugs can cause symptoms of excessive cholinergic activity (ie, hypersalivation, diarrhea, urinary Antidepressants must be used very cautiously, if at all, peri- urgency, abdominal cramping, and sweating). A recom- operatively because of the risk of serious adverse effects and mended rate for tapering TCAs is approximately 25 to 50 mg adverse interactions with anesthetics and other commonly every 2 to 3 days. MAOIs are contraindicated and should be dis- continued at least 10 days before elective surgery. TCAs should be discontinued several days before elective surgery Genetic or Ethnic Considerations and resumed several days after surgery. SSRIs and miscella- neous antidepressants have not been studied in relation to pe- Antidepressant drug therapy for nonwhite populations in the rioperative use; however, it seems reasonable to discontinue United States is based primarily on dosage recommendations, the drugs when feasible because of potential adverse effects, pharmacokinetic data, and adverse effects derived from white especially on the cardiovascular system and CNS. However, several studies document differences in ally recommended that antidepressants be tapered in dosage drug effects in nonwhite populations. Lithium should be stopped 1 to mainly attributed to genetic or ethnic variations in drug- 2 days before surgery and resumed when full oral intake of metabolizing enzymes in the liver. Lithium may prolong the effects are genetically heterogeneous and individual members may of anesthetics and neuromuscular blocking drugs.
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