By U. Jerek. University of Missouri-Columbia. 2018.
Use advanced formats for PowerPoint presentations only if you are well practised and Ground rules for slide preparation (35 mm or PowerPoint) comfortable with the medium order cialis professional 20 mg mastercard. Ensure that the computer you are planning to use is x Use a clear font that is easily readable x Use a type size of 20 points or greater compatible with the multimedia projector purchase cialis professional 20 mg without a prescription. Similarly, if you have x Use a light text on a dark background for slides (in contrast with stored your presentation on a CD or floppy disk (or any one of OHP transparencies) the other portable storage formats), make sure that this is x Use short sentences and small tables supported at the venue. The latest version of the presentation x Restrict the overall number of words on each slide to about 40 or software can give you access to many features that may not fewer work on the computer provided at the teaching venue, so a wise x Avoid patterned backgrounds—they are extremely distracting precaution is to save your presentation as an older version of x Limit the number of colours on your slides to a maximum of three x Use highlighting to emphasise items in lists the software. Special units were established that were able to resuscitate patients at high risk of developing cardiac arrest, and special hospital cardiac arrest teams were created. After coronary care units were established for patients with acute myocardial infarction, it became apparent that most deaths from the condition occurred in the early stages, not because the myocardium was severely damaged, but because of potentially treatable disturbances in the cardiac rhythm. Once the effectiveness of resuscitation in hospital was established, the realisation that two thirds of deaths from coronary heart disease occurred before hospital admission led to attempts to provide coronary care, and particularly defibrillation, in the community. The credit for this development goes to Pantridge in Belfast, who pioneered the first mobile coronary care unit staffed by a doctor and nurse. This early experience confirmed the high incidence of lethal arrhythmias at the onset of myocardial infarction and many patients attended by the mobile units were successfully resuscitated from cardiac arrest. Pantridge and his coworkers also drew attention to the value of cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) performed by bystanders before the arrival of the mobile unit. In the early 1970s, Leonard Cobb, a cardiologist in Seattle, inspired by these results, equipped paramedics with defibrillators and trained firefighters to act as first responders and perform basic life support. The fire service in Seattle is highly coordinated and a standard fire appliance can reach any part of the city within four minutes. CPR was, therefore, already in progress when more highly trained ambulance paramedics arrived some minutes later. Two factors were found to be crucial determinants of survival from cardiac arrest. The first was the presence of bystanders able to perform basic life support. To reduce this time interval further, the firefighters in Seattle were equipped with defibrillators, a process facilitated by the development of the semi-automatic advisory models that require less training to use. Vickery, the chief of the fire service in Seattle, made the important suggestion that CPR by members of the public should be the first stage in the provision of coronary care outside hospital. Together with Cobb, he inaugurated training in resuscitation techniques for the public to further increase the practice of CPR. The widespread provision of bystander CPR in the community, coupled with the provision of prompt defibrillation, has resulted in survival rates of up to 40% being reported from that area of the United States. In the United Kingdom, progress in community resuscitation was slower to gain momentum, but progress has been rapid in recent years. Scotland became the first country in the world to equip every emergency ambulance with a defibrillator. These are now standard equipment throughout the United Kingdom, with survival rates of up to 50% reported when cardiac arrest is witnessed by an ambulance crew. Initiatives to train the public in CPR techniques have proved popular and have made an important contribution to improved survival rates. More recently, resuscitation in the community has made a crucial advance with the introduction of “public access defibrillation”—a concept intended to further reduce the delay in defibrillation by placing defibrillators in busy public places for use by trained lay people before the arrival of the ambulance service. The rhythm recognition algorithms in modern automated defibrillators have proved sufficiently accurate and the machines are simple to operate by suitably trained lay people. Some public access defibrillation programmes have reported impressive results and England now has the first national public access defibrillation programme in the world. The British Heart Foundation has been instrumental in supplying defibrillators for use by the public, and although public access defibrillation is in its early stages in the United Kingdom, several people who have collapsed at railway stations or airports have been resuscitated by lay people before the arrival of the emergency medical services. Major efforts have been made to improve hospital resuscitation in the United Kingdom. Increasingly, proficiency in resuscitation skills is expected at postgraduate examinations and has been become a pre-requisite for appointment to many specialist posts. The automated defibrillator has enabled a wider range of staff to administer the first crucial shocks with the minimum of delay. In the ideal situation, a patient is promptly defibrillated by those present at the time of the arrest well before the arrival of the hospital cardiac arrest team. These may be junior medical or nursing staff with relatively limited experience. The recognition that many hospital patients who suffer cardiopulmonary arrest display warning signs indicating an underlying deterioration in their clinical condition has led to a redefinition of the roles of hospital cardiac arrest team. Increasingly, medical emergency teams are called at the first appearance of such premonitory signs to prevent cardiac arrest by the intensive management of the factors complicating the patient’s underlying condition. Should cardiac arrest occur the chances of resuscitation are increased by concentrating the experienced staff and equipment at the patient’s bedside. Separate courses administered by the Resuscitation Council (UK) teach adult, paediatric, or neonatal resuscitation. The Resuscitation Council (UK) comprises doctors from many disciplines and others who share the desire to improve standards of resuscitation both in hospital and in the community. Members of the Resuscitation Council (UK), with invited experts, produced the first edition of the ABC of Resuscitation in 1986 with the intention that it should serve as a practical guide to resuscitation for the 1980s. The second, third, and fourth editions moved into the 1990s and it is our intention that the fifth edition will perform the same function in the new millennium.
So do roughly 90 percent of persons age eighteen to sixty-four years with mo- bility difficulties cialis professional 40 mg free shipping, compared to only 81 percent without mobility impair- ments order 20 mg cialis professional overnight delivery. Older people are more likely than younger people to see physicians, and rates of doctor visits increase as mobility dif- 134 People Talking to Their Physicians table 11. Use of Health-Care Services No Physician Visits At Least One in Last Year (%) Hospitalization (%) Mobility Difficulty Age 18–64 Age 65+ Age 18–64 Age 65+ None 30 14 5 11 Minor 11 8 17 21 Moderate 8 6 23 26 Major 7 5 32 37 ﬁculties worsen. Among persons age eighteen to sixty-four years with major mobility difficulties, 22 percent use specialists as their usual care- giver, compared to 4 percent of younger persons without impaired mobil- ity. Almost everybody at least sixty-ﬁve years old has Medicare insurance, so lacking coverage is rarely a problem for them. Among persons age sixty-ﬁve and older, over 20 percent with major mobility difficulties report they don’t like, trust, or believe in doctors, com- pared to 7 percent of persons without impaired mobility. Perhaps this gap reﬂects prior experiences and expectations—from patients’ perspectives, physicians may have provided little help. Reason for Having No Usual Source of Health Care No Insurance/ Doesn’t Like, Trust, or Can’t Afford It (%) Believe in Doctors (%) Mobility Difficulty Age 18–64 Age 65+ Age 18–64 Age 65+ None 19 3 3 7 Minor 39 5 7 9 Moderate 40 5 5 8 Major 27 6 10 20 people are often less satisﬁed with their physicians than healthier persons (Hall et al. Johnny Baker, her primary care physician, and his nurse practitioner colleague. As Lester Goodall anticipated, perhaps part of the dynamic involves conﬂicting expectations between physicians and pa- tients around chronic disease. Physicians believe their job is to cure disease—or at least signiﬁ- cantly improve its course—and, for many acute problems, they succeed. Most patients, however, don’t expect cures—they have often lived with diseases for years and are realis- tic. They’d like help dealing with the daily, physical, functional conse- quences, but many physicians don’t know how to help. Consequently, peo- ple learn not to expect assistance from their physicians. Ironically, however, health insurers typically require prescriptions from primary care or other physicians before paying for physical or occupational therapy or mobility aids (chapters 13 and 14). Therefore, the professional who is often least knowledgeable about improving mobility determines ac- cess to important services. Several common themes emerged as interview- ees described experiences talking to physicians about mobility problems. Since childhood she has walked, ﬁrst without any assistance, then using crutches. A few 136 People Talking to Their Physicians years ago she began falling, injuring her knees, and her walking steadily worsened: she had developed a progressive chronic condition. The ﬁnal fall—the one making her a wheelchair user for the foreseeable future— happened at work. Although her orthopedist was based at that hospital, the ER wouldn’t call him. I’m sure that worsened the tear—I ended up going home with this immobilizer on my leg. The ER doctor assumed he knew the right intervention, acted quickly, and moved Natalie out the door. By not listening to Natalie, however, the ER physician likely worsened her knee injury, perhaps increasing the possibility of permanent impairment. Nevertheless, he professed surprise that she needs personal assistance at home. To Sally Ann, this was another example of physicians not considering the practical consequences of the impairments they carefully quantify during physical examinations. Kay Toombs recounts: “My neurologist, in dis- cussing the pros and cons of estrogen therapy to prevent osteoporosis, tells me that I do not need to worry about falling and breaking bones—because People Talking to Their Physicians / 137 I will not be able to stand up” (1995, 22). Without thinking, her neurolo- gist may see Toombs as literally “conﬁned” to her wheelchair, but of course she is not. Falls happen as people move in and out of wheelchairs to chairs, to beds, to toilets, to shower seats, to cars, and so on. Toombs probably now takes this neurologist’s observations with circumspection. Cynthia Walker concluded that, “You have to get information and learn as much about your own condition as you can. She doesn’t always follow her physician’s advice, particularly when it ignores practical realities. Her rheumatologist prescribed an orthotic or ankle brace: “It’s an artiﬁcial way to fuse my joint to ﬁnd relief when I’m walking. In short, sometimes I feel that I am the doctor in practice, and he’s the patient who’s learning. Gracie Brown, now in her mid seventies, had a knee that used to “ache, ache, ache all day, and all I did was rub it, rub it, rub it. The doc- tor that I went to then passed it off for a few years: “Oh, it’s just a little arthritis. A friend at a Boston hospital gave me a recommendation for a doctor over there. I went, and he sent me to a physical therapist and gave me exercises and things that really helped me. He did as much as he needed to do 138 People Talking to Their Physicians in two visits. Sanderson underscored something emphasized by many interview- ees: that physicians should refer patients to specialists for problems outside their expertise.
Some worry that placards cialis professional 20 mg on-line, in particular cialis professional 40 mg low price, are given to peo- ple with relatively minimal mobility problems. Regardless of the deﬁnition of those deserving handicapped parking spots, few disagree there are rarely enough. I think it’s very selﬁsh of people to park in them if they aren’t authorized to do it. Walter Masterson wryly ob- served, “You compete for parking spots, and the closer into the center of Boston, the more you compete. Over the last several decades, policies relating to public transportation for people with disabilities have ﬂipped between two notions: “effective mobility” (providing transportation by varying means, even if separate from main systems) and “full accessibility” (creating a fully integrated transportation system for everybody). Localities and companies need not retroﬁt existing buses with lifts, but all new buses purchased or leased must be accessible. Transportation systems obviously reﬂect local terrains, policies, and populations, so each is unique. Around 55 percent of people report having accessible transportation services available in their areas, but far fewer have used it in the last year: 11 percent of people reporting mild, 16 percent 124 / Outside Home—at Work and in Communities with moderate, and 17 percent with major mobility difficulties. Difficulty walking is the major impediment to using public transporta- tion, followed by needing assistance from another person and problems boarding with wheelchairs or scooters. I can do it, but older people or weaker people— there’s no way they’ll get off the bus. Similarly, elevators to underground subway stops periodically break down. Brianna therefore tries to ride her wheelchair where she needs to go—she doesn’t want to get stuck. Metropolitan Boston’s demand-responsive, public system, the RIDE, generates strong emotions. With its ﬂeets of large, heavy vans with auto- matic wheelchair lifts, the RIDE serves people who cannot manage the ﬁxed route systems (buses, subways) alone, or who need to go someplace the ﬁxed route systems do not reach. Applicants for the RIDE must submit medical justiﬁcations from their physicians. For efficiency, the RIDE picks up multiple riders at the same time, so people often take numerous detours before reaching their ﬁnal destinations. Not surprisingly, therefore, the major complaint about the RIDE involves delays, perceived as disrespect for people’s time, compounded by the rudeness of drivers. There have been times when I have actually had to miss a doctor’s appointment because of the RIDE. The RIDE is a horrendous company to have to use, and I have to use it every day, so I’m talking experi- ence. I always tell them that I have to be places a half hour earlier than I really do, and they still sometimes either get me there late or they don’t get me there at all. So the RIDE can be a real nightmare if you have to rely on it for medical appointments or school or work. Sometimes people have big heavy wheelchairs that take Outside Home—at Work and in Communities / 125 forever to hook up and strap down. They get me places late a lot of times, but I’m not going to yell at the driver. Years will elapse before spaces become as accessible as they can be, spurred by the ADA, state and local laws, and other public initiatives. Describing the full extent of physi- cal barriers and ongoing efforts to remove them is beyond my scope here. But before moving on, I must emphasize that all health-care settings are not yet fully and easily accessible, even those built after the ADA. Justice Department investigations have found persistent problems with physical access to health-care facilities (President’s Advisory Commission 1997). Eleanor Peters and her fellow focus group participants Michael and Jamie and Bobby (all wheelchair users) go to the same academic hospital- based outpatient center, which opened in the mid 1990s. The architect and builders complied with the letter of the ADA, but even for hospital facili- ties, the ADA requires only that access be technically feasible—not neces- sarily easy. I thought, oh my God, I’m going to have to stay here until somebody comes in. The doors are too narrow, about this wide,” Stella gestured with her hands, “and my chair just barely ﬁts through it. You can’t even get into the Star- buck’s coffee shop if you’re in a wheelchair. They could have put a window there that people in wheelchairs and on walkers could walk up to and get a cup of coffee.... They’ve left out a lot of things, like railings on the wall you can hold onto. They’re supposed to 126 / Outside Home—at Work and in Communities cater to handicapped people. Handicapped people don’t need special privi- leges, but the hospital should make it easy for them to get around. If I didn’t have good doctors, I’d go somewhere else, some- where they cater to sick people. Preconceptions about using wheelchairs, for example, typically convey dismal dependence and limited lives. Actual experiences often differ signiﬁcantly from these unhappy ex- pectations. For people with progressive chronic impairments, Sontag’s term “ill- ness” holds layered meanings.
Failure to recognize and treat these conditions appropriately may lead to signiﬁcant and often disabling exacerbation of existing medical and psy- chiatric conditions 40mg cialis professional fast delivery, including ﬁbromyalgia discount 40 mg cialis professional with visa, and difﬁcult-to-diagnose dis- eases, including reﬂex sympathetic dystrophy, chemical sensitivities, and other conditions that involve pain. So when tracking clues as your own med- ical detective, be sure not to overlook the importance of sleep problems. Conclusion If your physician is among those who do not believe that diseases such as ﬁbromyalgia or sleep disorders exist and you believe you have the symptoms, ﬁnd another physician to consult. Do a thorough Eight Step analysis, mak- ing sure to address these speciﬁc questions: • Is your skin painful and tender, or do you feel pain all over your body, even to the point of jumping when touched? Do you hardly ever feel refreshed on wakening after a night’s sleep or even after a nap (although pain will rarely wake you)? If you answered yes to at least ﬁve of these questions, ask your doctor to investigate whether you are suffering from ﬁbromyalgia. Also, consider whether a sleep disorder may be the underlying cause of your symptoms even if it is not ﬁbromyalgia. Remember, sleep disorders are one of the most commonly missed causes of mystery maladies. Treatments that are supposed to make us healthier or keep us well sometimes do just the opposite. More often than many of us realize, med- ications or natural remedies recommended for the treatment of certain ail- ments can become the cause of other maladies. Recent statistics show that reactions to medications and other remedies are the fourth leading cause of death in the United States, dwarﬁng the number of deaths caused by auto- mobile accidents, AIDS, alcohol and illicit drug abuse, infectious diseases, diabetes, and murder. With 46 percent of Americans taking at least one pre- scription drug daily, 25 percent taking multiple prescriptions, and untold percentages ingesting over-the-counter products, there is a lot of potential for close encounters of an adverse kind. There is no formal system for reporting the majority of such reactions because side effects or adverse reactions reportable to health regulatory agen- cies are narrowly deﬁned as clear-cut responses that cause permanent dis- ability, hospitalization, or death. Even the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) admits that serious side effects or medication reactions are grossly underreported and may be reaching epidemic proportions. Just because they are purchased from a health food store or their source is natural, it does not mean they may not be toxic for some people. Nutritional healing is becoming more 103 Copyright © 2005 by Lynn Dannheisser and Jerry Rosenbaum. There is much evi- dence to suggest that increasing numbers of yet unidentiﬁed maladies are resulting from nutritional supplements, vitamins and herbs, and many nat- ural remedies. These remedies must be examined because very few controlled studies are performed on them. As a result of all of these factors, it can take years (if ever) for a drug, vaccine, or natural supplement to be removed from the market as unsafe. Consider Propulsid, once the top-selling heartburn medication, which was on the market for seven years before the FDA ﬁnally withdrew it based on reports of hundreds of heart arrhythmias and scores of deaths. Or the very popular antihistamine Seldane, which sold for a decade before it was removed from the market, even though cardiac toxicities had been identi- ﬁed and exposed years before. Many patients who were using these med- ications and experiencing mysterious symptoms had no way of connecting one with the other—especially if their physicians had no knowledge of the possible side effects. Incorrect dosing has proved to be another major cause of mysterious symptoms. These medications are being prescribed for more than twenty million people at the manufacturers’ recommended dosages. Prozac, for example, is recommended at a dosage of 20 milligrams a day, but recent research has shown that many patients need doses of only one-half or even one-quarter of that amount. How many people on these *For example, Ephedra, the herbal supplement linked to heart attack, stroke, and sudden death was the ﬁrst supplement banned since Congress severely restricted the FDA’s authority to regulate herbal products. And how many people are having side effects from newly prescribed med- ications that are essentially being “overdosed”? Undisclosed or unreported side effects and incorrect dosages of phar- maceutical medications (whether prescribed or over-the-counter), as well as of all natural remedies, must be examined as part of your medical detective work. Without sufﬁcient testing and/or reporting, it is easy to see how patients and even the most skilled medical practitioners can easily become victims of the profound lack of knowledge in this area. Doctors rely on the information disseminated by drug companies, whose tests are designed for speciﬁc outcomes and who spend billions in marketing their products. Their marketing strategies present information on the drug in the most favorable light possible. Patients rely on their doctors as well as the FDA, whose stated mission is to ensure the effectiveness and safety of medications. But the FDA is often rendered ineffective because of political pressures and funding short- falls. Add to this the even greater lack of testing and reporting with respect to natural remedies, and we are all in potential trouble. Pitman couldn’t identify the cause of his problem until he employed the Eight Steps to Self-Diagnosis. It never happened during the day, and it didn’t seem to affect his sexual functioning or libido. The only thing that diminished the pain of these strange nocturnal erections was exercise, squatting, or urinating. Within a couple of months after the onset and because the pain only affected him at night, Dr. He started taking sleeping pills and eventually developed an addiction to them.
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